March 1, 2021

Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part – 1

Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part – 1

Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part - 1
Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part – 1

(A) Sikh Empire and Hill State

(i) Jassa Singh Ramgarhia –

After the death of Banda Bahadur, the Sikhs were organized in 12Mishal.  Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was the first Sikh chieftain among the Chieftains of the Mishal who in 1770 AD the hill princely states, the kings of Kangra, Nurpur and Chamba were adopted as donors and merged the Dattarpur, Jaswa and Haripur princely states into their kingdom.  Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the chieftain of Kanhaiya Mishal, in AD 1775Jasa Singh Ramgarhia was defeated and took over the kingdoms of Kangra. 

 (ii) Jai Singh Kanhaiya and Sansarchand –

 In 1781-82, Sansarchand surrounded the fort of Nagarkot with the help of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the Sardar of Kanhaiya Mishal.  Nawab Saif Alikhan, the last fortress of the fort, sought help from the queen of Kahlur.  But 1783 AD After the death of Nawab Saif Alikhan, his soldiers surrendered and evacuated the fort.  Sansarchand could not become its master even after winning Fort.  Kangra Fort remained with Jai Singh Kanhaiya for four years.  Sansarchand teamed up with Maha singh of Sukrachakia Mishal and Jassa Singh of Ramgarhia Mishal and defeated Jai singh Kanhaiya in Batala.  Jai Singh Kanhaiya in1786 AD handed over the Kangra Fort (Nagarkot) to Sansarchand. 

(iii) Ranjit Singh and Sansarchand –

After the invasion of Kahlur (Bilaspur) of Sansarchand, King Mahan Chand of Kahlur called Gorkha commander Amarsingh Thapa in 1804 AD to help.  Amar Singh Thapa in 1806 AD Defeated Sansarchand in Mahalmorio.  Sansarchand escaped and took refuge in Kangra Fort.  Sansarchand asks Ranjit Singh for help.  A volcano treaty was signed between Sansarchand and Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809 at the Jwalamukhi Temple according to which Sansarchand would give Maharaja Ranjit Singh a Kangra Fort and 66 villages in exchange for defeating the Gorkhas.  Maharaja Ranjit Singh defeated Amarsingh Thapa.  Sansarchand handed over the Kangra Fort and 66 villages to Ranjit Singh.  Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Desa Singh Majithia the first Sikh fortress of Kangra Fort and governor of the hill states.  Ranjit Singh performed religious rituals at the Jwalamukhi temple and also offered a gold umbrella.  In 1823 AD Sansarchand Died.  

(iv) Ranjit Singh and Anirudh Singh –

1823 AD after the death of Sansarchand, Anirudh Chand (son of Sansar Chand) sat on the throne, giving one lakh sightings to Ranjit Singh. In 1827 AD Ranjit Singh asked for the hand of Anirudh Chand’s sister for the son of his Diwan Dhyan Singh, which Anirudh Chand obeyed, but later stopped procrastinating.  When Maharaja Ranjit Singh himself departed for Nadaun, Anirudh Chand and his mother took refuge with daughters in the English state.  During his stay in Haridwar for a few days, Anirudh Chand married both his sisters to Sudarshan Shah, the king of Tehri Garhwal and himself resided in Arki, the capital of the state of Baghal.

(v) Ranjit Singh and other hill states –

In 1813 AD Ranjit Singh seized the kingdom of Haripur (Guler).  His king Bhup Singh was imprisoned in Lahore.  1815 AD The princely state was captured in Jaswan because Jaswan King Umaid Singh accepted the jagir instead of paying a heavy fine.  The Nurpur state was also fined (like Jaswan) for being absent at Sialkot (1815).  Raja Veer Singh tried to pay the fine.  Veer Singh could not pay the fine.  He was offered a jagir, which he refused to take, and revolted against the Sikhs and went on the mountainous route to the English territory.  Nurpur was captured by Ranjit Singh. In 1826 AD Veer Singh was arrested and sent to Amritsar.  From where, after 7 years, the king of Chamba paid a fine and rescued him.  Sikhs in 1825 AD Captured Kutlehar in 1818 AD On the death of the king of Dattarpur, the Sikhs captured Dattarpur and in return, his successors were given a jagir at Hoshiarpur.  In 1809 AD Sibba State was captured by Ranjit Singh.  At the behest of Dhyan Singh, Ranjit Singh in 1830 AD returned the kingdom to Govind Chand, as he had married the sons of Dhyan Singh to the princesses of the Sibba family.  The princely state of Mandi used to pay Rs 50 lakh – Rs 1 lakh to Ranjit Singh.  The princely state of Kullu used to pay Ranjit Singh an annual tax of 50 thousand rupees.  The princely state of Chamba also came under the dominion of Ranjit Singh under the rule of Chadat Singh but the independence of the king of Chamba continued.  Narayangarh of Sirmaur princely state was also captured by the Sikhs. In 1839 AD Ranjit Singh died  

(vi) General Ventura (1840 AD – 1841 AD) –

In 1840 AD under the leadership of General Ventura of Sikh Army.  The army moved towards Kullu and Mandi.  The king of Kullu surrendered.  Raja Balveer of Mandi was the son of a mistress, he was imprisoned and sent to Amritsar.  Raja Balveer Sen was kept in the Govindgarh Fort. In 1841 AD Balveer Sen was left.  Balveer Sen got his 12 forts freed from the Sikhs, but the Kamalahgarh Fort Only after 1846 AD it could be captured.  The princely states of Bilaspur, Nalagarh, Sirmaur, Shimla survived the Sikhs due to British patronage. 

(vii) First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46 AD) –

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1845-46 AD.  There was a fierce war between the Sikhs and the British.  Lord Hardinge was the Governor General of India at this time. 

War of the Sabarao (February 10, 1846 AD) –

This was the last and decisive war between the Sikhs and the British.  The war ended with the death of Sham Singh Atari Wala on behalf of the Sikhs.  The British army crossed the Sutlej river on 20 February 1846 Took over Lahore. 

Result of War –

 The British did not merge the entire kingdom into the British Empire with the objective of maintaining Punjab as a buffer state between Afghanistan and India.  The other British did not even have such a large army to keep it under control.  March 9, 1846 AD after the end of the First Sikh War Treaty of Lahore signed. 

The terms of the Treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846 AD) –

Sikh claims on all areas south of the Sutlej River were abolished.  All the territories between Beas and Sutlej came under British occupation.  The Sikhs had to pay 1.5 crore rupees as war compensation. 

Role of hill kings in war –

 Most of the hill kings supported the British in the war and drove the Sikhs out of their kingdom.  King Shamsher Singh of Guler drove the Sikhs out of the fort of Haripur. 

(viii) Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49 AD).

The events of the war took place between the British commander Lord Gough and the Sikh Sardar Sher Singh on November 22, 1848.  The battle of Ram Nagar took place in which there was no decision of victory or defeat. On January 13, 1949 AD Both sides suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Chillianwala.  The British sent Charles Napier of La Gough as Commander.  Lord Gough defeated the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujarat (21 February 1849 AD) before Charles Napier arrived.  This war is also called the war of cannons.  After the conquest of Multan, the army of Lai Gough was increased to 2.50 lakhs and the decisive victory was achieved by the joining of General Vish’s army.  Akram Khan, the boy of Afghanistan’s ruling friend Muhammad, supported the Sikhs.  The Sikhs marched on 13 March 1849 Gave up arms.  The result of the war came to the Sikh Empire on 29 March 1949.  Was annexed into the English Empire.  Maharaja Dileep Singh was sent to England on an annual pension of 50 thousand pounds.

(B) Gorkha Invasion

(i) Gorkha Invasion –

The main objective of Gorkha invasion was area expansion. 

(1) Invitation to Gorkhas –

In 1804 AD   Amar Singh Thapa captured Garhwal.  King Mahan Chand of Kahlur called Amar Singh Thapa for his help against Sansarchand and Raja of Hindur (Ramsharan Singh).  Raja Karma Prakash of Sirmaur called Amar Singh Thapa for help against Hindur and his brother Kanwar Ratna Singh.  Amar Singh Thapa killed Ratansingh.  Ranjore Singh, son of Amar Singh Thapa, defeated Karma Prakash and occupied the princely state of Sirmour.  Karma Prakash took refuge in Bhuria, Ambala. 

(2) Right of Gorkhas over the hill states –

After occupying the princely state of Sirmour, the Gorkhas defeated the army of Hindur in Azimgarh.  Raja Ramsharan Singh fled south towards Kalsi.  Amar Singh Thapa in 1810 AD took Hindur, Pundar, Jubbal and Dhami under him. In 1806 AD Gorkhas defeated Sansarchand at Mahalamorio and forced him to hide in Kangra Fort.  Amar Singh Thapa freed King Ishwari Sen of Mandi from Nadaun prison after 12 years from the captivity of Sansarchand.  Amar Singh Thapa established his headquarters at Arki of Baghal.  King Jagat Singh of Arki had gone into exile. In May 1811 AD   Amarsingh Thapa defeated Bushahr and took control of Theog, Balsan, Kotgarh, Jubbal and Rampur.  King Ugra singh of Bushehr died suddenly.  The minor king of Bushehr, Mohinder Singh, lived with his mother in his old capital Kamru.  Amar Singh Thapa the states and the Thakurais around Rampur in 1812 AD subordinated myself.  Amar Singh Thapa handed over the territory in front of Sarahan to the minor king of Bushehr in exchange for an annual tax of Rs 12000 and returned to Arki himself. 

(ii) Gorkha – British War (1814-15 AD)

(1) Gorkha – British War –

1 November 1814 AD the British waged a war against the Gorkhas in which the hill kings supported the British.  Four troops were formed by the British – Gillespie, Martindale, William Fraser and Ochterlony led these troops. 

Gillespie and Bal Bhadra Thapa –

Major General Rolla Gillespie marched towards Dehradun and Kiyarda Doon with 4400 soldiers.  Dehradun’s commander Bal Bhadra Thapa left Dehradun and barricaded Kalinga.  The British won the fort of Kalinga.  Gillespie was badly injured in this campaign. 

 Martindale and Ranjore Singh –

Ranjore Singh left Nahan to face the British and barricaded the Jataka fort.  English forces on 19 December 1914 AD Reached Nahan and surrounded Ranjore Singh in the Jataka Fort on 25 December.  Ranjore Singh defeated Martindale badly here. 

James Bailey Fraser (commanding Jubbal, Chaupal Ravinangarh, Rampur and Kotgarh) –

James Bailey Fraser attacked Jubbal with 500 soldiers.  The British reached Sarahan near Chaupal on 2 March 1815.  Where Dangi Wazir and Primu of the princely state of Jubbal came and met them.  100 Gorkha soldiers of Chaupal fort surrendered and started supporting the British army.  Ravinagarh Fort was occupied by Ransoor Thapa.  Dangi Wazir and Wazir Badridas and Tikamdas of Bushahr attacked the Ravingarh Fort.  After the treaty negotiations, the Gorkhas vacated the fort and Fraser’s army took over there.  Gorkha army was led by Kirti Rana in Rampur Kotgarh region.  Bushehr’s army was led by Badridas and Tikamdas.  The armies of Kullu were also in 1815 AD met him.  Kirti Rana surrounded the Hatu Fort.  He surrendered and saved his life. 

Major General David Ochterlony –

Major General David Ochterlony on November 5, 1814, via Ropar.  Captured Nalagarh.  After this the Taragarh Fort was captured.  Amar Singh Thapa decided to take a front from the British around Ramgarh Fort.  Raja Ramsharan Singh of Hindur (Nalagarh) and Raja of Kahlur decided to join the British. On January 16, 1815 AD Ramgarh Fort Was attacked, which caused Amar Singh Thapa to go to Maloun Fort.  The British captured the Ramgarh Fort.  The death of Bahadur Bhakti Thapa and the Kumaon defeat of the Gorkhas at the Maloun Fort forced Amar Singh Thapa to make a treaty.  Amarsingh Thapa accepted Nepal and his son Ranjore with respectful dedication and personal wealth. 

(iii) Treaty of Sugauli (1815 AD) –

 The Treaty of Sugauli (November 28, 1815 AD) ended the Gorkha-British War and the Gorkhas accepted their return to Nepal.  By this treaty the boundaries of both the states were fixed.  All rights to the Sikkim state of Nepal were withdrawn.  The British got Garhwal, Kumaon, Shimla Hill State and most of the Terai between Kali River to Sutlej.  An English resident was stationed in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal.  The Gorkhas accepted the terms of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816.

(C) Expansion of British Empire

 (i) British administrative policy towards the hill states-

After the Anglo-Gorkha War (1815 AD), the subordinate princely states of the Gorkhas came under the protection of the British.  Similarly, the First Anglo-Sikh War After that the princely states which were in the possession of the Sikhs came under the authority of all the British. After 1815 AD British towards the hill states following policy was adopted to

Establish British suzerainty through the treaties –

After the British war, David Akterlony convened a meeting of 20 Shimla hill states in ‘Palasi’ to divide the territories received by the Gorkhas.  This resulted in Sirmaur (Fateh Prakash, September 21, 1815 AD), Bilaspur (Mahan Chand, March 6, 1815 AD), Hindur (Ramsharan Singh, September 20, 1815 AD) Jubbal (Purnchand, September 18, 1815 AD).  Baghat (Mohinder Singh, 4 September 1815 AD), Keonthal (Sansar Sen, transfer of power in 1815, Sanad 5 April 1893), Baghal (Jagat Singh, 3 September 1815 AD).  The states of Bushehr (Mohinder Singh, February 8, 1816) were handed over to their rightful owners and the treaties were granted.  According to this treaty, he and his children were given the right to rule.  Kumarsen (Rana Kehar Singh, 7 February 1816 AD; Balsan (Yograj, September 21, 1815 AD), Throch (Jhobu, January 31, 1819 AD), Mangal (Bahadur Shah, September 20, 1815 AD), Dhami (Govardhan Singh, 4 September 1815 AD) Treaties were conferred separately on the Thakurais. The Knights of Khaneti and Delath were subjected to the Bushahr while Koti, Ghund, Theog, Madhan and Ratesh were given to the Keonthal princely state. 

(ii) British connection with Shimla Hill Princely States

Bushahr-

After the Gorkha War, the British returned the Bushahr princely state to Raja Mohinder Singh by a sanad. Bushahr was the only princely state to hand over the real kings to their princely states by paying 15,000 rupees annually.  The British accepted a ten-thousand-rupee annual tax in exchange for Bushehr’s forests in 1877, on a 50-year lease. In the year 1911, the British appointed Alan Michel as the manager of the Bushahr.  In the year 1898, the British were forced to leave Shamsher Singh in favor of his son Tikka Raghunath Singh.  After the death of the prince, instead of reassigning Shamsher Singh to the throne, the British made Rai Mangat Ram an administrator. 

Bilaspur (Kahlur) –

 On 6 March 1815 AD the British granted sanad to King Mahan Chand of Bilaspur.  Khadak Chand 1824 AD sat on the throne and snatched the fiefdom of most of his relatives.  Civil war started under Miyan Jangi.  The king called an army of 300 Rohilla Pathans to suppress the rebellion, which led to many skirmishes with the Miyan people.  William Murray (Political Representative) in 1827 AD In three quarters of the army, the rebellion was pacified.  He handed over the reins of administration to Miyan Muri and Sansaru and also warned the king to improve his behavior.  In the last days Khadak Chand compromised Miyan and returned his fiefdom.  Khadak Chand’s in 1839 AD Died, He had no son.  Both of her queens were ready to be sati, but Russell Clarke forbade them to do so and promised them generous grants.  Russell Clark recommends Miyan Jangi to be king in 1839 AD sent it to the government.  On October 21, 1847, the Raja of Bilaspur was given the right of state over those areas located on the right side of the Sutlej and in 1809 AD.  He was under it before.  King Vijay Chand (1888–1903) tried to run the administration of the state according to the British system but he did not get the cooperation of the officials.  He went to Benares to hand over the administration to Minister Harichand.  Miyan Amarchand and the British officers helped in the administration. 

Hindur –

Raja Ramsharan Singh of Hindur was sent on 20 September 1815 handbook was handed over to Sanad by the Sanad, but the Maloun fort and village were taken, in return for which the king was entrusted with the treason of Bharauli.  In return for the British assistance in the Sikh War (1846 AD), the fort was returned by the Sanad to the fort king and Bharauli was regained by the British which the king sold to the Raja of Balsan for Rs 8500. 

Keonthal-

After the Keonthal-Anglo Gorkha War on September 6, 1815 Raja Sansar Sen of Keonthal was returned to the kingdom by the Sanad but the eight parganas were retained by the British.  In 1830 AD the British took 12 villages from Rana of Keonthal.  In return, the king of Keonthal was given the Ravine pargana.  It was denied the administration due to three complaints against the king of Keonthal.  In 1840 AD He was again handed over the kingdom due to internal unrest in the reign of Raja Balbir Singh in 1899 AD.  The British appointed a manager here. 

Sirmour –

In 21 September 1815 AD Fateh Prakash was placed on the throne of Sirmaur by a sanad, who was only six years old at that time.  By this sanad, the British government made Morni of Sirmaur princely state.  Forts of Jagatgarh, Kyarda Doon and Jaunsar – kept the areas of Babur with them.  Till Fateh Prakash became an adult, the task of governance allowed Guleri Rani to run under the supervision of Captain Burch (Assistant State – Representative in Nahan Darbar).  Birch formed a council to advise the queen and Kishan Chand, the Diwan of the state. – Expelled 22 from the state. On July 5, 1826 A.D Fateh Prakash applied to the government that after the Gorkha war, the government had kept the Jaunsar-Babar, Kalsi, Kyarda Doon areas with them, to be returned to them at the sight of one and a half lakh rupees.  Fateh Prakash attended the ‘Shimla Darbar’ of Governor General Lord Amhert.  The government refused to give the territory of Jaunsar Babur to the king of Sirmaur.  The government dated 5 September 1833 Gave the Kairada Doon Valley to Fateh Chand for 50 thousand rupees by a sanad.  Chamba came under the dominion of Ranjit Singh under the rule of Chamba-Chadat Singh (1808–1844) but the independence of the King of Chamba continued.  1844 AD of Chadat Singh Shree Singh became the king of Chamba after his death.  After the defeat of the Sikhs, on 16 March 1846 AD.  The British made a treaty of Amritsar with Raja Gulab Singh, according to which the British gave all the area between Ravi and the Indus to Gulab Singh for 75 lakhs including Kashmir, Ladakh, Gilgil and Chamba.  Chamba which was on either side of the river Ravi (taxed the Sikhs) opposed the submission of Gulab Singh (the king of Jammu).  Colonel Lawrence settled the problem by mediating between Kashmir, Chamba and the British government April 6, 1848 AD by a Sanad.  The independence of Chamba was upheld.  It was decided to collect Rs 12000 per year from Chamba.  The Bhaderwah region was merged into the state of Kashmir. 

 In 1862 Major Blair Reid was appointed Superintendent of Chamba.  In the year 1864, the king of Chamba leased all his forests.  In 1913, with some conditions, the control of forests was handed over to the king.  After Major Blair Reid, Bernie in 1879 and in 1885 AD H.T.  Marshall was appointed manager.  After this, the post of manager was abolished and Sham Singh was given full rights to rule.

Kangra-

1823 AD After the death of Sansar Chand, Anirudh Chand (son of Sansar Chand) ascended the throne. In 1827 AD Anirudh Chand, he had to take shelter in the British state due to fear of Ranjit Singh, because Ranjit Singh was pressurizing him to marry his sisters to Raja Dhyan Singh of Jammu.  Anirudh Chand went to Arki after marrying his sisters to the king of Garhwal.  He Died in1831 AD. With the intervention of the political representative of Ludhiana, Anirudh Chand’s sons Ranbir Chand and Pramod Chand were sent in 1833 AD got back the manor. 

Kullu –

In 1841 AD King Ajit Singh of Kullu died in Sangri.  Superintendent of the hill princely states of Shimla, Mr. Iskin recommended Ajit Singh’s cousin to be the king, but he died.  After this, Thakur Singh, uncle of Ajit Singh, was made the nominee king and he was given the title of Waziri.  In 1846 AD the aftermath of the first Sikh war, Kullu came under the control of British.  Thakur Singh was accepted as the king.  In 1852 AD Gyan Singh succeeded after his death, but being the son of concubine, the British changed his title from “Raja” to “Rai” and abolished his political rights.

Mandi and Suket –

On March 9, 1846 AD Kangra, Guler, Jaswa, Dattarpur, Nurpur, Mandi, Kullu and Lahaul – Spiti came to the British by the Treaty of Lahore (between the Sikhs and the British). By a Sanad, Balbir Sen (son of Rakhel) on October 24, 1846 AD Was accepted as the king of Mandi. After the death of Balbir Singh (in 1851 AD) his four-year-old minor son Vijay Sen became king. He attended the Delhi court in 1877 AD. Vijay Sen served as EW Purkis.  Many development works were done under supervision. Suket had helped the British in the Sikh war. Therefore, he was again granted peace in 1846 AD. King Balbir Sen of Mandi was engaged on iron and salt mines.  The British were asked to obey the tax. Wicked Nikadan Sen, the king of Suket, was a minor (in 1879), then Mr. Donald in 1884 Was appointed Wazir.

Nurpur-

In 1848 AD Wazir Ram Singh Pathania of Nurpur and Raja Pramodh Singh of Kangra revolted in which the kings of Jaswan and Dattarpur helped.  Commissioner Lawrence crushed the rebellion and sent Pramodh Chand to Almora and Wazir Ram Singh Pathania to Singapore where they both died.  Jaswant Singh, son of Raja Veer Singh of Nurpur, was given a jagir of Rs 2000. 

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