Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part – 2
|Modern History of Himachal Pradesh Part – 2|
(D) Revolt of 1857
(i)The uprising of 1857 AD –
Wazir Ram Singh Pathania of Nurpur proved to be a zigzag for the British. He was defeated by the British at “Dale Ko Dhar” near Shahpur. He was betrayed by a Brahmin Pahadchand. Wazir Ram Singh Pathania sent to Singapore where he died. In Himachal the first spark of rebellion against the company government in April 20, 1857 AD. Kasauli soldiers flared up in the cantonment when 6 native soldiers of Ambala Rifle Depot set fire to a police post in Kasauli.
(ii) In Shimla region the 1857 AD revolution began –
On May 11, 1857 AD the news of revolt and Slaughtering of Meerut, Ambala and Delhi reached Shimla. The Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, General George Enson, ordered the soldiers of the military cantonments of Jatog, Spatu, Dagshai and Kasauli to march towards Ambala and also set out towards Ambala in a panic. The native army did not accept his command.
Terror in Shimla region –
800 European women, men and children gathered first in the church and later in the Shimla Bank (Gad Hotel) as directed by General Nicholas Panny. Lord William Hay, deputy commissioner of Shimla, was unable to provide security to the people. The Europeans took refuge in Dagshai military barracks and Junaga palace. Some British came under the shelter of the rulers of Dhami, Koti, Balsan and Baghat. Major General Govanz on 15 May 1857 AD took refuge with the family at Junga. Colonel Keith yang and Colonel Great head also took refuge with the family in the fort of king of Kyothal.
Rebellion by Nasiri Battalion led by Bhim Singh –
“Nasiri Battalion” (Gorkha Regiment) stationed at Jatog captured Jatog cantonment and treasury under the leadership of Bhim Singh, the Subedar of the native army. The native soldiers of the Nasiri contingent of Kasauli on 16 May 1857 AD revolted and attacked the British army of Kasauli. After the Nasiri army left Kasauli, the local police guards took over the reins of the revolution. Its leader became Budh Singh, the Inspector of Cantonment Police Station. Under his leadership, the revolutionaries captured the Kasauli treasury and marched towards Jatog to fight the British. The British captured some, some died in an encounter. Budhi Singh shot himself. May 24, 1857 AD Jatog’s revolutionary Nasiri army organized a meeting under the leadership of Subedar Bhim Singh and considered the proposal of Captain David Briggs (Superintendent of Hindustan Tibet Road) and Deputy Commissioner William Hay. Due to lack of support from the revolutionaries of Delhi, Meerut and Ambala, Jatog’s Nasiri army decided to postpone the rebellion.
Ramprasad Bairagi –
The secret organization in Shimla was working against the British, whose leader was Ram Prasad Bairagi. The Commissioner of Ambala, GC Barnes catch some letters of this organization on 12 June 1857, Ramprasad Bairagi wrote that letters, sent to Subedar of Nasiri battalion to Saharanpur and Maharaja Patiala’s counsel to oppose the British. Ramprasad Bairagi was arrested and taken to Ambala Jail and hanged there.
Bushahr princely state –
Bushahr princely state in 1857 AD revolt did not support The British. Raja Shamsher Singh of Bushehr stopped paying annual compensation of Rs 15,000 to the British and did not provide any financial and military assistance to them and declared the princely state independent. William Hay, deputy commissioner of Shimla and political agent of the hill states wanted to take action against the king of Bushehr but could not take action against the king due to lack of army and construction of Hindustan-Tibet road.
Cooperation of hill states –
On May 27, 1857 AD After the demise of British commander General George Enson in Ambala, Sir H. Bnard was appointed the new Commander-in-Chief. On May 28, 1857 AD the native soldiers of Jatog, Spatu, Kasauli, Dagshai and Kalka decided to abandon the rebellion. On June 7, 1857 AD, the Colonel CD Blair, the President of the Shimla Municipal Committee, sent a letter to the Chief Commissioner of Punjab Lawrence urging him to give the power of martial law to Captain Briggs for the safety of Shimla. As a result, John Lawrence gave William Hay 20 jawans with double barrel guns, 50 cops and 100 native guards. William O on August 7, 1857 AD put 50 soldiers of the princely state of Kahlur were appointed in Balluganj, 60 soldiers of Sirmaur princely state at Bada Bazaar under the leadership of Kunwar Veer Singh, 60 soldiers of the princely state of Keonthal, Dhami, Bhajji and Koti at the residence of deputy commissioner. Apart from this, 250 jawans were appointed for the emergency by the rulers of Baghal, Jubbal, Koti, Keonthal and Dhami.
(iii) Rebellion in Kullu region –
The plan of Jan Kranti in Kullu region was led by the local Crown Prince Pratap Singh (son of Kishan Singh, Raja of Kullu). He wrote on 16 May 1857 awakened a sense of independence in the entire Siraj region, in which his main advisor and associate was his brother-in-law Miyan Veer Singh (resident of Baijnath, Kangra). Pratap Singh and his associate Veer Singh were arrested in Dharamshala, on August 3, 1857 Was hanged,
(iv) Chamba princely state –
The citizens of Chamba did not take an active part in the rebellion of 1857. Raja Shri Singh of Chamba remained loyal to the British Government. At the behest of John Lawrence, British Political Agent and Chief Commissioner of Punjab on 16 May, 1857 AD Police guards were guarded on all the main routes of the princely state. The British settled in Dalhousie were frightened by the revolt of 36 – Native Infantry in Jalandhar and 61 – Native Infantry. Some women and children took refuge with the king of Chamba. A troop led by Miyan Atar Singh was sent to protect Dalhousie.
(v) Mandi State-
Raja Vijay Sen of the princely state of Mandi was only ten years old at the time of the revolt of 1857. The British made Wazir Gosau the wazir and administrator of the Mandi State. Even before the British loyalist Wazir Gosau pressed the rebellion before it sparked. On the demand of British officers, he sent 125 gunmen to suppress the Una-Hoshiarpur rebellion. On May 28, 1857 AD The 60-foot soldiers were provided for the protection of Nalagarh on the orders of Edward John Lake, Commissioner of the Trans-Sutlej States. Wazir Gosau provided 50 soldiers to the British government to suppress the rebellion of Jalandhar. Mandi princely state presented 125,000 rupees to the British government in the form of war financial aid. Wazir Gosau himself provided Rs 15,000 from his personal account.
(vi) The end of the revolt in Himachal –
Till 14 August 1857 AD in Shimla, Kangra, Kullu, Nalagarh and other hill states, 50 Himachali revolutionaries were hanged, 500 were jailed and 30 were expelled and their properties were confiscated.
(vii) After 1857 Constitutional and Administrative Development in H.P.-
After the revolution of 1857 ‘Government of India Act, 1858’ was implemented in Himachal and all India. On 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria’s Declaration was announced by Lord Canning in Allahabad. It was also published in Shimla and pasted at major places in the city.
(viii) 1857 AD Honors to the kings who collaborated during the rebellion of the 1857 –
In addition to ignoring the rebellion of King Shamsher Singh of Bushehr, the rebellious king of Jaswan, Ranasingh was freed from Almora jail and conferred on the Jaswan. Devi Singh, son of Raja Jagat Singh of Dattarpur, was released from Almora jail. The annual pension of Raja Veer Singh of Nurpur was doubled. Rana Krishna Singh of Baghal was conferred with the title of ‘Raja’ and his brother Jai Singh was awarded ‘Khilat’. Rana Sansar sen of Keonthal was conferred with the title of “King” and conferred ‘Khilat’. Half of the sight of Rani Govardhan Singh of Dhami was forgiven. The rulers of Mandi, Sirmaur, Kahlur, Jubbal and Chamba were also honored.
(ix) Delhi Durbar-
In 1877 AD the Delhi Durbar was organized during the tenure of Lord Lytton. Raja Shyam Singh of Chamba, Raja Vijay Sen of Mandi and Raja Hirachand of Bilaspur participated in it. In 1911, Delhi was made the capital of India in place of Calcutta. A court was held in Delhi on this occasion. The court was attended by Amar Prakash of Sirmaur, Amar Chand of Bilaspur, Raja Vijay Sen of Keonthal, Raja Bhim sen of Suket, Bhuri Singh of Chamba, Raja Deep Singh of Baghat and Raja Bhagat Chand of Jubbal.
(E) National Movement
(i) Jan Andolan
(1) Pazhota Kisan Andolan –
In1942-43 AD Pazhota, the upper region of Sirmaur, a peasant movement was launched with their grievances. At this time the Second World War was in full swing. There was a famine in Bengal. short of food was experienced. Therefore, the princely government prohibited farmers from sending food grains outside the princely state, where they would get good prices when they sold. Farmers were also ordered to keep some food with them and sell the remaining food to government-operative societies. Unjust taxes were levied in the state like Gharat, Reet marriage tax etc. Employees started taking more labor from people. On October, 1942, farmers gathered at village Taprauli in Pazhota and formed a “Pazhota Kisan Sabha” to deal with the situation. Its head Lakshmi Singh village Kotla and secretary Vaidya Surat Singh were elected. Apart from this, Miyan Gulab Singh and Atar Singh of Taprauli village, Chun Chun Miyan of Jadol, Mehar Singh of Panakufar, Madan Singh of Dhamla, Jaalam Singh of Vaghot, Kaliram Shavani of Neri, etc. After some time, Madan Singh of Dhamla village was replaced as Laxmi Singh Pradhan. The entire control and operation of this movement was in the hands of Vaidya Surat Singh. He wrote a letter to King Rajendra Prakash and requested that he himself visit the area to know the problems of the people. Sirmour Naresh Rajendra Prakash was dependent on the flattery of the employees. The staff did not let Raja meet the people. So, Raja sent the police village to Dhamla, Habban under the supervision of the police officer. She could not suppress the movement. After this, the entire Pazhota area was reduced under military rule. People for two months continued to agitate under ‘martial law’. During this time, a person named Kamna died of a bullet.
After two months, after military rule and firing, the army and police arrested the main men of the agitators. Some people fled and took refuge in the princely state of Jubbal. Bhakta Chand, the king of Jubbal, gave them great respect. The agitators were prosecuted by sitting a tribunal in Nahan. Vaidya Surat Singh, Miyan Gulab Singh, Amar Singh, Madan Singh, Kaliram etc. were sentenced to ten years.
(2) Slum Movement –
1883 to 1888 AD the slum movement took place in Bilaspur against Raja Amarchand. In order to resist the atrocities of the king, the Brahmins of Gehadvi started living in slums and endured the sufferings by placing the flag of the favored deity on the slums, and before the king’s arrest, the Brahmins set fire to the slums. The public was enraged and in the end the king had to end the forced labor and undergo administrative reforms.
(ii) Activities related to freedom movement in Himachal Pradesh –
(1) Establishment of Indian National Congress
the Indian National Congress (Indian National Congress) has been the first place in the movement for the independence of the country. The Congress organization was conceived by Alan Octavian Hume, a Scottish resident retired from Indian service, that the Congress should only take up the social problem, but when he put his mind in front of Governor General Lord Dufferin in Shimla. Then Dufferin gave him his opinion as a suggestion to keep this institution as an independent political institution keeping in view the welfare of the Indian nation. Its first session was held in Bombay on 28 December 1885. On the occasion of Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College concluded. Among the main representatives, AO from Shimla Were Hume. The conference was chaired by barrister Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee. Initially, this institution had no animosity with the British power. At that time its purpose was to get Indians to participate in administration and get appointments to high positions. Till this time, only British officers were employed in high positions. Over time its policies changed and it became a political institution of the country.
(2) Establishment of Ghadar Party –
At that time, even outside the country, foreigners were engaged in making Indian country independent. In 1911 AD Lala Hardayal escaped from India to France and reached San Francisco based in America. In 1913 AD he started a newspaper called ‘Gadar’ on his initiative and in memory of the 1857 mass uprising. In the same year in the conference of representatives of various Indian communities in America, an organization called Indian Association was established and its principal leader also became Hardayal. Soon its name was changed to Ghadar Party. It had branches in many countries. In America, these weekly newspapers ‘Ghadar’ used to come out in many Indian languages. In 1913 AD Hardev Ram left the job of Teacher of Mandi and reached Japan via America. From there he moved to Shanghai. There he met Gadar Party leader Dr Mathura Singh. Leaving the goal of attaining higher education, Hardev Ram joined the Ghadar Party. In 1914 AD, with much literature of Lala Hardayal of Ghadar Party, Hardev returned to India as a revolutionary and started campaigning of the Gadar Party. He also worked a lot in Mandi.
(3) Mandi Conspiracy-
The famous Mandi Conspiracy incident of 1914-15 was influenced by Ghadar Party. When some of the members of the Ghadar Party returned from America and started some work to make their supporters among the people of the princely states of Mandi and Suket. He provoked people by reading ‘Ghadar Ki Echo’ literature. Rani Khairgarhi and Miyan Jawahar Singh of Mandi came under his influence. The queen helped them by giving money. In December 1914 and January 1915, it was decided to secretly kill the police officer and the wazir and loot the government fund and blow up the bridge over the Beas river. After this, the princely states of Mandi and Suket should be empowered. Only one Nagachala dacoity except for all his objectives. As a result of this failure, Rani Khairgarhi was expelled from Mandi. Bhai Hirda Ram, an activist of the Ghadar Party, was sent to Punjab and entrusted with the task of training in bomb making. Bhai Hirda Ram was caught in the griping of the activists of this party and was put to death in the Lahore conspiracy case. Later this sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. In this hold, Hardev managed to escape and he escaped and reached Badrinath in Garhwal. He changed his name to Swami Krishnanand and joined the Congress party in 1917 AD. In Sindh province, there was a jump in the non-violent movement. In the end, all the revolutionaries were caught and prosecuted and sentenced to long imprisonment. Chief among them were Jawahar Naryal, Miyan Jawahar Singh, Badrinath, Siddha Kharada, Jwala Singh, Sharda Ram, Dalip Singh, Longuram. Hirda Ram was later sent to Andaman for the punishment of black water. After this, the revolutionary organization of Mandi weakened. At the beginning of the year1916, revolutionaries of the Gadar Party became active again in Mandi, Suket and Una. He planned to kill the British officers. This time the workers of Mandi were caught. Five of them were tried and were sentenced to fourteen to eighteen years. The Kranti Kari contingent of Una’s revolutionary Rishikesh Latta also got exposed and went underground and after some time reached Iran and joined the Ghadar Party.
(4) Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival at Shimla –
Gandhiji visited Shimla on 11 May 1921. He was accompanied by leaders like Maulana Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Lala Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malviya, Lala Dooni Chand etc. Gandhi met the Viceroy Lord Reading on 13 May. On the second day, Gandhiji addressed the women in the Arya Samaj hall of Lower Bazar Shimla. On 15 May, he addressed a gathering of more than fifteen thousand people at Eidgah. People came from the hilly regions around Shimla to visit Gandhi. Gandhiji’s arrival in Shimla attracted the attention of the people of this mountainous region towards the national ideology. After about 1923, Bhagmal Souhata, an engineer from village Dhar in the state of Jubbal, entered the national movement. From 1922-1923, the Congress movement in Shimla gained momentum. In it Pt. Gendamal, Maulana Muhammad Nauni, Abdul Ghani, Ghulam Muhammad Naqvi, Thakur Bhagirath Lal, Hakeem Trilokinath were the prominent participants.
(5) Samuel Evans Stokes and Baba Kanshiram –
Some time ago Samuel Evans Stokes, a man from America started living in Kotgarh, upper part of Shimla hills. Impressed by Gandhiji’s ideas, he launched a movement against the practice of forced labor in all the hill states. He embraced Hinduism and became Satyananda Stokes. He was imprisoned for participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement. He was released from Kathu prison in Shimla on 24 March 1923 along with others. Satyananda Stokes continued his program of social reform and political awakening in the hill states after his release from prison. Those working outside of Kangra were also influenced by the national movement. When he returned to his village, he would carry on the work of the Congress and participate in his processions. One such conference was in 1927 AD in Tal, near Sujanpur, Baloch soldiers beat people badly. Thakur Hazara Singh, Baba Kanshi Ram (Pahari Gandhi), Gopal Singh and Chatur Singh were also involved in this fight. The soldiers also took away his Gandhi caps from them. Against this, Pahari Gandhi Baba Kanshi Ram swore that he would wear black clothes until India became independent. The contribution of Baba Kanshiram and Hazara Singh is very important in the movement of Congress. Baba Kanshi Ram received the title of ‘Pahari Gandhi’ in 1937 at Gaddiwala public meeting. Jawaharlal Nehru gave it. He was given the title of ‘Pahari Bulbul’ by Sarojini Naidu.
(6) The arrival of national leaders –
Lala Lajpat Rai in 1906 AD came Mandi. The leader of the Theosophical Society Anne Besant in 1916 came to Shimla. Mahatma Gandhi, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Lala Lajpat Rai and Madan Mohan Malviya first appeared in 1921 AD migrated to Shimla. Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Shimla to meet Viceroy Lord Reading. Mahatma Gandhi came to Shimla in 1921, 1931, (3 times) in 1939, 1945 and 1946. Mahatma Gandhi stayed in 1945 at Manorville (residence of Princess Amrit Kaur) and in 1946 at Chadwick Summer Hill.
(7) Agitator –
Rishikesh Latta in Una in 1915 AD Launched the revolutionary movement in Famous litterateur of Hamirpur Yashpal 1918 AD Jumped into the freedom struggle. Yashpal was in 1932 AD Was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was the Chief Commander of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. Major Mehar Das of the Indian National Army was conferred the title of ‘Sardar-e-Jung’, Captain Bakshi Pratap Singh as ‘Tamga-e-Shatrunash’ and Hari Singh of Sarkaghat as ‘Sher-e-Hind’. 2 Gorkha brothers Durgamal and Dal Bahadur Thapa of Dharamshala were hanged in Delhi. Baba Lachhaman Das and Satya Prakash “Baagi” were arrested in Una in 1930, running the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(8) Incidents of the 1920s –
Non-cooperation movement started in Himachal in 1920. First delegation of congress in Shimla Formed in 1921 AD. The rulers of the princely state formed the ‘Chamber of Princes’ (Narendra Mandal) in 1921. The arrival of the Crown Prince of England ‘Prince of Wales’ in December 1921 protested. Lala Lajpat Rai Locked at Dharamshala, brought from Lahore in 1922. Viceroy Lord Reading inaugurated the ‘Central Council Chamber “(present assembly) in Shimla in 1925 AD. 1928 AD in Shimla and Kangra. The Simon Commission was opposed on arrival in India.
(9) Civil Disobedience Movement –
On 27 February 1930, Gandhi announced the launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the country. Congress workers from Shimla and Kangra participated in this movement. There was a procession about it from place to place and processions were taken out. Many Congressmen were caught and sent to jail. For this civil disobedience movement Lala Gendamal, Dr. Nand Lal Verma, Lakshmi Devi, Roop Lal Mehta, Sundar Das, Lakhan Pal, Satyavati Khosla, Dwarka Prasad, Naval Kishore, Vasudev, Dinanath Andhi, etc. were arrested and tortured Sentenced to imprisonment. By 20 July 1930, 494 Satyagrahis were arrested in Shimla and sentenced to jails in Shimla, Ambala, Ludhiana, Multan, Lahore, Montgomery and Amritsar jails. By October 1930, 700 satyagrahis were arrested in Kangra as well.
(10) Gandhi – Irwin Pact –
Viceroy Lord Irwin called Gandhi ji to Shimla in March 1931 to reach a settlement to deal with the civil disobedience movement. Jawaharlal Nehru, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Dr. Ansari was also there. He again came to Shimla on 5 May 1931 to talk again. This time Gandhiji also gave a speech at the Ridge Maidan. Gandhiji once again came to Shimla on 25 August 1931 to sign the Gandhi-Irwin pact. With them Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Sir Prabhashankar Pattani were also there.
(11) Dhami Bullet Case –
On 16 July 1939, Dhami Bullet Case held. On July 13, 1939 AD A meeting of volunteers of Dhami princely states was held under the chairmanship of Bhagmal Souhata, leader of Shimla Hill States Himalayan princely Praja Mandal. At this meeting, Dhami requested to remove the ban imposed on Prem Pracharini Sabha, which was denied by Rani of Dhami. On 16 July 1939, under the leadership of Bhagmal Souhata, people left for Dhami. Bhagmal Souhata was arrested in Ghanahatti. Rana ordered to shoot at the people gathered near Halog Chowk. In which 2 people were killed and many were injured. On Mahatma Gandhi’s orders, Nehru appointed a lawyer of Doonichand to investigate the incident.
(12) Quit India Movement –
On 14 July 1942 AD the Executive Council of Congress passed Gandhiji’s ‘Quit India’ resolution in Wardha. On August 8, 1942 AD in the All India Congress Committee’s Bombay meeting, it was decided to run the Quit India movement. Gandhiji was given the leadership of this movement. In Shimla, Kangra and other hilly regions, the procession and agitation started in connection with “Quit India” and the slogan of ‘Bhai Do Na Pai Do’ was echoed in the village. During this movement in Shimla, Bhagmal Souhata, Pt. Hariram, Chaudhary Dewan Chand, Saligaram Sharma, Nand Lal Verma, Tufail Ahmed, Om Prakash Chopra, Sant Ram, Harichand etc. were arrested. They were sentenced to rigorous imprisonment and imprisoned in Punjab jails. From Shimla, Princess Amrit Kaur continued to conduct the “Quit India Movement” and edited her magazine “Harijan” when Gandhi ji was imprisoned. Congress activists of Kangra also participated in Satyagraha in support of Gandhi ji. Many people contributed to it during the Quit India movement. Mangat Ram Khanna, Hemraj Sood, Comrade Ramachandra, Paras Ram, Sarla Sharma, Brahmadanda and Pt Amar Nath were prominent among the participants in such movements. In May, 1944 AD. Mahatma Gandhi was released from prison. The “Quit India Movement” slowed somewhat as a result. In September 1944, the leaders arrested in the “Quit India Movement” in Himachal were released.
(13) Wavell Plan –
On14 May 1945 AD in London, India Secretary M.L. Emery announced a plan for India’s political solution in Parliament, called “Wavell – Plan” in history. Accordingly, Viceroy Lord Wavell invited Indian political parties to hold talks in Shimla on 25 June 1945. Representatives of the invited parties reached Shimla to participate in this conference. These include Congress President Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, Chakraborty Rajagopalacharya, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Acharya Kripalani, Govind Vallabh Pant, Pattabhisitaramaiya, Shankar Rao Dev, Jai Das Daulat Ram, Ravi Shankar Shukla, Sucheta Kripalani, Sarojini Naidu, Bhola Bhai Desai, Asif Ali, Aruna Asif, Meeraben etc. Congress leaders came to Shimla. Mahatma Gandhi also came to Shimla to give advice and stayed at Manorville, the residence of Princess Amrit Kaur in Summerhill. On June 25, 1945, 21 delegates attended the conference at the Viceroy’s residence “Vice Regal Lodge”. Among these 21 delegates were Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the chief representative of the Muslim League. In this conference, the Congress expressed satisfaction over political problems. But he expressed his dissatisfaction with the communal approach of the Muslim League. Although the conference went on for several days and the Viceroy intervened with sincerity, the conference faded in front of the League’s persistence. Finally, on July 14, the Viceroy The conference ended with the announcement.
(14) Formation of Interim Government –
A Cabinet from Britannia – Mission came to India in May 1946 to talk to Indian leaders. Meetings of Indian leaders, Viceroy Lord Wavell and Cabinet Mission, this time also held in Shimla on from May 5 to May 12, 1946. The Muslim League fanatics did not get much success, but the Viceroy Lord Wavell succeeded in forming an interim government and later the League also considered it wise to join the government and Talked to Viceroy. Therefore, on 2 September 1946, the Congress formed an interim government in India and on 26 October 1946, the leaders of the Muslim League also joined this government. Assistance.
(F) Praja Mandal Movement
(i) All India State People’s Conference –
In the late 19th century and early twentieth century there was a rapid awakening among the people of the hill states. There too, movements started to establish a responsible government. The Congress also understood that it should guide the princely subjects. At the same time, the Congress was to achieve complete independence. It also included native princely states. These princely states were pieces of India, which could not be kept separate from India. On 17 December 1927, “All India State’s People’s Conference” (All India Riyasati Praja Parishad) was formed in Bombay. Its first session was also held in 1927 AD.
Ludhiana Conference –
On 15-16 February 1939, the conference of “All India States People’s Conference” was held in Ludhiana under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Pt. Nehru laid emphasis on the establishment of Praja Mandal in the princely states. He expressed the idea that small princely states should form an organization so that the organization becomes powerful. In this session in Ludhiana, From the princely states of Shimla Pt. Padamdev was Bhagmal Souhata. Swami Purnanand from Mandi, Thakur Hitendra Singh from Sirmaur, Sadaram Chandel from Bilaspur, Vidya Sagar from Chamba, Vidyadhar, Ghulam Rasool and Prithvi Singh participated. After this, the Praja Mandals began to be formed rapidly in these hill states.
(ii) Formation of Praja Mandal at Sirmaur-
After being influenced by the proposals of All India Riyasati Praja Parishad, the first Praja Mandal institution of Himachal was formed in Sirmaur. Its founder was Pt. Rajendra Dutt. He established its office in Paonta instead of Nahan. Chaudhary Sher Jung, Master Chatar Singh, Salig Ram, Kundan Lal, Ajayb Singh etc. took an active part in it. On October 12, 1930 AD The first conference of Punjab and hill states was held in Ludhiana. In this, Sardar Bhagat Singh and two others from Paonta of Sirmaur represented the princely state of Sirmaur. During the same period Pt. Sivananda Ramoul started his revolutionary life by becoming a member of the “Sirmauri Association” based in Delhi. Rajendra Dutt etc. continued to operate it within the princely state. In 1934 Sirmour State, some people established a Sirmour Praja Mandal. Dr. Devendra Singh, Ramnath and Atma Ram became founding members.
Bushehr Praja Mandal –
In order to unite the Bushahr Praja Mandal in 1945 AD, other organizations of Bushehr like Bushehr Reform Conference Bushahr Prem Sabha and Sevak Mandal Delhi also organized the people of Bushehr. For this, the work was done by Pt. Ghanshyam and Satyadev Bushahri and many other leaders within the princely state.
(Iv) Chamba Sevak Sangh –
In March 1936 some people in Chamba princely state formed an institution called “Chamba Sevak Sangh”. Later on, this organization turned into a political organization. Hence the government imposed this ban on this. As a result, the Sangh made its activities center in Dalhousie.
(v) Dhami Prem Pracharini Sabha –
Many of the people used to work in Shimla of Dhami state. They formed a “Prem Pracharini Sabha” in 1937 to improve his princely state. Baba Narayan Das, who was working in Shimla, was made its chairman and Pt Sita Ram as minister. Initially, it was aimed at social and economic reform, but later it involved in political work. There was also talk of participation and movement.
(vi) Dhami Praja Mandal –
Meanwhile, the “Prem Pracharini Sabha” of the Dhami princely state planned to join the princely Praja Mandal Shimla to avoid the repression of the government. On July 13, 1939, with the same objective there was a meeting of Praja Mandals of hill states of Shimla at Kaimli location near Kusumpati near Shimla under the chairmanship of Bhagmal Souhata. In this meeting, “Prem Pracharini Sabha” of Dhami princely state was changed to “Dhami Praja Mandal”. Pt Sita Ram of Dhami was appointed the head of this organization. On this occasion, a resolution was passed by the Dhami Praja Mandal.
Dhami Goli Kand – Bhagmal Souhata On July 16, at about eleven o’clock, we started Set about from Shimla for Dhami with a small team. Two members of this party, Bhagat Ram and Devi Saran, raised the Congress flag. When Bhagmal Souhata and his companions reached near Ghanahatti near the border of Dhami, the princely soldiers seized Bhagmal Souhata, the leader of the Satyagrahis, and took him to Dhami. The people gathered to welcome the satyagrahis reached near Rana’s residence shouting slogans against Rana. Fearing, Rana ordered the mob to disperse. This caused panic and many people were badly injured. Two people died. Satyagraha leader Bhagmal Souhata was arrested and sent to Ambala.
(vii) Establishment of Shimla Hill States Riyasati Praja Mandal (Himalayan Riyasati Praja Mandal) –
On 1 June 1939, a meeting was held in Shimla with representatives of the people of Shimla hill states. It brought to light the secret activities of kings and ranas. Impressed by the Ludhiana Conference, various institutions of the hill states of Shimla formed a joint body, named “Shimla Hill States Riyasati Praja Mandal”. In the establishment of this institution, Pt. Padamdev and Jubbal’s Bhagmal Souhata made special contributions. In this Pt. Padamdev was made the Pradhan and Bhagmal Souhata as the great minister.
(viii) Himachal Hill States Council –
A session of “All India States People’s Conference” was held in Udaipur at the end of 1945. After the convention, the representatives of Praja Mandal from the hill princely states ran the Praja Mandal in their area smoothly. Established an institution called “Himachal Hill States Regional Council” in January 1946. Its Principal Swami Purnanand was created and his office was kept in Mandi. Pt. Padamdev was made its Chief Secretary and his office was kept in Shimla. Additional Shyam Chand Negi was made the Deputy Chief and Sivanand Ramoul as Joint Secretary. The first conference of “Himalayan Hill States Regional Council” took place from 8 to 10 March 1946 in Mandi. In addition to Council President Swami Purnanand, General Secretary Padamdev and Joint Secretary Shivanand Ramoul, representatives of the hill states of Suket, Mandi, Bilaspur, Sirmaur, Chamba, Nalagarh, Baghat and Shimla were actively participated. Col. Gurdial Singh Dhillon, a well-known fighter of the Azad Hind Fauj, also reached Mandi to preside over the conference.
On 31 August and 1 September 1946, the conference of the Himalayan States Regional council was held at Nahan-Sirmaur. In this conference, the President of All India States People’s Conference Dr. Pattabhisitharamaiya and Jayanarayan Vyas Mahamantri, Colonel Shahnawaz, Dooni Ban Ambalvi etc. with More than forty delegates from the hill states attended. Rajendra Dutt, Dr. of the Praja Mandal Sirmaur leader, Shivanand Ramoul, Devendra Singh, Hitendra Singh, Dharam Narayan, Harichandra Padha and his associate Agitator created unprecedented awakening in the princely state of Sirmour, shaking the roots of the princely government. During this period, Chiranji Lal went back to Shagari and started a movement against forced labor there. In the same year, Gyan Chand toot became the head of the Praja Mandal of Kohistan.
On November 1946 AD Satyadev Bushahri became the head of the Bushehr Praja Mandal. In the same period, Bhagmal Souhata gave special momentum to the Praja Mandal movement in the princely state of Jubbal. Jai Lal Sharkholi. Master Ram Ratan, Mia Kahan Singh etc. also participated in this movement. In Balsan princely state this movement took a violent form. In February 1947 AD Leela Das Verma of Bhajji, Kanshi Ram Upadhyay of Bilaspur and some other activists of Praja Mandal, went to Dr. Yashwant Singh in Delhi and brought him to Shimla. In Shimla, On the request of Pt. Padamdev, Shivanand Ramoul, Daulat Ram Sankhyan, Pt. Sita Ram, Durga Singh Rathore and other hill leaders, Dr. Yashwant Singh joined the national independence movement. He started staying at the Krishna Villa Lodge in Sanjauli near Shimla. At the same time, Leela Das Verma opened the office of Praja Mandal in Sanjauli. With this Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar started his leadership in politics permanently and led the movement in the hill states. On March 1, 1947, the Himalayan Hill States Regional Council met in Shimla. The council officials were elected in this meeting. Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar got its head and Pt. Padamdev was elected its general minister. In April 1947, Dr. Parmar traveled from Delhi along with Daulat Ram Sankhyan, Narottam Shastri, Leela Das Verma, Shivanand Ramoul etc. to attend the Gwalior session of the Congress.
(ix) Himalayan Hill States Sub Regional Council –
10 June 1947 AD Another meeting of the Himalayan Hill States Regional Council took place at the Royal Hotel in Shimla. Out of 16 members, 11 members attended the meeting. In this meeting differences arose among the members and six members formed a separate organization. The organization was named “Himalayan Hill States Sub – Regional Council”. The head of this new council was elected Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar. In August 1947, Sirmaur Praja Mandal held a major conference in Nahan Its chief organizer were Pt. Rajendra Dutt, Dr. Devendra Singh, Dharam Narayan was Advocate, Pt. Shivanand Ramoul. The conference was also attended by Rajendra Prakash, King of Sirmour. The Conference was made by Chairman of Himalayan Hill States Sub-Regional Council, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar. He waved the national flag.
(x) Representative Governments –
The Thakur of Kunihar praised this movement and included the people of his state in administration. Seeing this, some other rulers did the same. On the occasion of Independence Day, the leaders of Praja Mandal of the princely state of Theog forced Rana Karmachand to relinquish power. After some time, Rana announced the council of ministers, which had 13 members. Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel welcomed these steps but for five months. After that Rana captured the treasure with the help of some people. Armed Police Theog was sent on Sardar Patel’s intervention. The ruler was captured and thrown out of there. Theog was the first princely state, which merged with the Indian Union before the creation of Himachal Pradesh