Sirmaur District History | Brief Explanation
|Sirmaur District History|
Naming of Sirmaur –
The ancient inhabitants of Sirmaur were Kulind. The Kulind kingdom was situated at the apex of the Maurya Empire, due to which it was called Sirmauriya which became Sirmaur over time. According to other legends, the ancestor of King Rasalu was named Sirmaur, hence the state was named Sirmaur. The capital of the princely state was named Sirmaur due to which the princely state was named as Sirmaur. The deity of Sirmauriya was worshiped in this region due to which the state was named Sirmaur.
Establishment of the princely state of Sirmaur –
‘Tarikh-a-Riyasat Sirmaur’ According to Rajour Singh’s book, the ancient name of Sirmaur princely state was Sulokina. It was founded in 1139 AD by Raja Rasalu, son of King Salvaahan of Jaisalmer. Its capital was Sirmauri Taal. According to another legend, Raja Madan Singh betrayed a woman who used witchcraft and killed her in the river Giri. Due to the curse of the woman, the princely state was swept away in the flood of the Giri river and his no successor survived, after which King Salvaahan II of Jaisalmer sent his third son, Hansu and his pregnant queen to Sirmaur. After Hansu’s death on the way, pregnant Rani gave birth to a prince under the Palash tree at Poka in Sirmauri Ta al, which was named Palasu and Rajvash came to be known as Palasia.
In 1934 AD According to the Gazetteer of Sirmaur, King Ugrasen (Salvaahan II) of Jaisalmer came on a Haridwar pilgrimage. Seeing the throne of Sirmaur vacant, he sent his son Shobha Rawal (Shubhnsh Prakash) to establish the princely state. Shobha Rawal (Shubhnsh Prakash) in 1195 AD Established Rajban as the capital of the princely state of Sirmaur.
Mahe Prakash (1199-1217) –
In 1199 AD after Shubhnsh Prakash’s death Mahe Prakash became king. During his reign, the boundaries of Sirmaur spread to Garhwal, Bhagirathi, Srinagar and Narayan garh. He captured the ‘Malda Fort’ near the river Bhagirathi and named it ‘Mahe Deval’.
Udit Prakash (1217-1227 AD) –
Udit Prakash in1217 AD Transferred the capital of the princely state of Sirmaur from Rajban to Kalsi.
Kaul Prakash (1227-1239 AD) –
Kaul Prakash took Jubbal, Balsan and Throch under him and made him his fiefdom. Kaul Prakash in 1235 AD gave refuge to Razia Sultan’s opponent ‘Nizam-ul-Mulk’.
Sumer Prakash (1239-1248 AD) –
Sumer Prakash took the Jagir Ratesh of Keonthal under him and made the capital of the princely state of Sirmaur.
Suraj Prakash (1374-1386 AD) –
Suraj Prakash collected taxation under Jubbal, Balsan, Kumarsen, Ghand, Sari, Theog, Ravi and Kotgarh. Suraj Prakash re-established Kalsi from Ratesh, the capital of the princely state of Sirmaur.
Bhakta Prakash (1374–1386 AD) –
Bhakta Prakash was a contemporary of Ferozeshah Tughlaq. In 1379 AD during the reign of Bhakta Prakash, Ferozeshah Tughlaq made Sirmaur princely state his fief. Muhammad Shah, the son of Ferozeshah Tughlaq, took refuge in the hills of Sirmaur.
Jagat Prakash (1386-1388 AD) –
At the time of King Jagat Prakash, Jubbal, Balsan, Ravinagarh and Kumharsen revolted and liberated themselves from the state of Sirmaur.
Veer Prakash (1388-1398 AD) –
Veer Prakash made Haatkoti his capital. He built the temple of Bhagwati Durga on the banks of the river Pabbar. Veer Prakash built ‘Ravingarh Fort’. Ratna sen was the ruler of Kyarda Doon at the time of Timur Lung’s invasion.
Transfer of capital –
Nekat Prakash (1398-1414 AD) established the capital of the princely state in ‘Neri village’ on the banks of river Giri. Garv Prakash (1414-1432) shifted the capital of the princely state from ‘Neri’ to the Jogdi Fort. Brahma Prakash (1432-1446 AD) established the capital of the princely state in the ‘Devathal’ of Pachad. Dharma Prakash (1538–1570 AD) from the capital of the state ‘Devathal’ Changed and re-established in Kalsi.
Deep Prakash (1570-1585 AD) –
In 1573 AD Deep Prakash in Trilokpur, Sirmaur, Built the temple of Bala Sundari
Budhi Prakash (1605-1615 AD) –
Budhi Prakash shifted his capital from Kalsi to Rajpur.
Karm Prakash (1616-1630 AD) –
In 1621 AD Karm Prakash in consultation with Baba Banwari Das in 1621 AD Moved the capital of the princely state of Sirmaur to ‘Rajpur to Nahan’. Karma Prakash laid the foundation of Nahan city and Nahan fort.
Mandhata Prakash (1630 AD – 1654 AD) –
Mandhata Prakash was a contemporary of Shah Jahan. He had assisted the faujdar Najawat Khan of Kangra in the Garhwal campaign. He also helped Iraj Khan in the Garhwal campaign.
Sobhag Prakash (1654-64 AD) –
Sobhag Prakash was the contemporary ruler of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
Buddha Prakash (1664-78 AD) –
By Aurangzeb, the elder son of Sobhag Prakash (Mahi Chand), was conferred the title of Buddha Prakash and accepted the king of Sirmaur. King Buddha Prakash had good access to the Mughal court. He used to send gifts of Kasturi, pomegranate, snow etc. to Begum Jahanara. He used to have equal correspondence with Begum. Buddha Prakash’s army was defeated by the Keonthal Kau army at ‘Deshu’s Dhar’.
Medani Prakash (1678–1704 AD) –
Guru Govind Singh came Nahan and Paunta under the rule of Medani Prakash. Guru Gobind Singh in Paunta Sahib Stayed up from 1684 to1688 AD and fought the war of Bhagani Sahib. In 1681 AD Medani Prakash in Nahan Built the Jagannath temple. Medani Prakash was also called Mat Prakash.
Hari Prakash (1704-12 AD) –
Banda Bahadur came to Sirmaur at the time of Hari Prakash.
Bhup Prakash (1712 AD) –
Bhup Prakash was conferred the title of Bhim Prakash with Khilat by Mughal Shah Muhammad Muajim bin Aalamvir. His queen built the temple in Khalistan.
Keerat Prakash (1757-73 AD) –
Keerat Prakash defeated the king of Srinagar (Garhwal) and Narayangarh, Rampur, Ramgarh, Morni, Pinjore and Jagatgarh were captured by him. A treaty was struck between Gorkha commander Amar Singh Thapa and Keerat Prakash according to which the river Ganga crossed the border between Gorkha and Sirmaur state.
Jagat Prakash (1773-92 AD) –
In 1781 AD George Foster came in Nahan. King Jagat Prakash in the year 1785 defeated Ghulam Qadir Rohilla of Rohilla Khand in Katasan and built a temple of Katasan Devi (Durga Temple) as a Vijay Smriti.
Dharm Prakash (1792-96 AD) –
Dharm Prakash was a contemporary of King Ramsharan Singh of Hindur, King Mahan Chand of Kahlur and King Sansar Chand of Kangra. Dharm Prakash died while fighting against Sansar Chand’s army. After death to Dharm Prakash, his brother Karma Prakash-II ascended the throne.
Karm Prakash – II (1796 AD – 1815 AD) –
Domestic revolts began in the state after the death of Mehta Prem Singh Wazir during the reign of Karma Prakash. In 1803 AD Karma Prakash with his family started living in ‘Kangra Fort’ of Kyarda Dun. He invited the Gorkhas to suppress the rebellion. Ranjour Singh (son of Amar Singh Thapa) subjugated the princely state of Sirmaur. Ranjour Singh got the ‘Jataka Durg’ constructed. Karma Prakash took refuge in the Bhuriyan of Ambala till his death.
Fateh Prakash (1815–50 AD) –
On September 1815, the Governor General made Fatah Prakash as the throne. Mata Guleri Rani was given the charge of the kingdom in the state of Fateh Prakash. Captain G. barch was appointed assistant agent to assist him. In 21 September 1815 AD the Morni, Kyarda Doon and Jaunsar Babar areas of Sirmaur state were retained by the British government by a sanad. In September 5, 1833 AD to King Fatah Prakash on return of 50 thousand rupees by a sanad, Kyarda Dun area was returned. In 1827 AD the Shimla Darbar (in honor of Lord Amhert) was attended by Fateh Prakash. Fateh Prakash built ‘Sheeshmahal’ and ‘Motimahal’ in Nahan. Fateh Prakash had built Nahan Kothi in Panchkula.
Shamsher Prakash (1856-98 AD) –
William Hay to run the administration of Sirmaur in 1857 AD formed a committee under the leadership of Mehta Devi Dutt and Motiram Bhandari as King Shamsher Prakash became king at the age of 10. Shamsher Prakash assisted the British in the Revolt of 1857. At the end of the rebellion, the government extended Kuvaar Surjan Singh and gave a seven-gun salute to King Shamsher Prakash which was increased to 11 in 1867. Shamsher Prakash tried to run the administration of the state on the administration system of the British government. He divided the state into four tehsils and appointed tehsildars. In The year 1888 AD the Raja, a military contingent named ‘Imperial Service Troops’ was prepared. Shamsher Prakash – made land settlement for the first time in 1878. This settlement happened under the supervision of Munshi Nandlaal of Lahore. This settlement was opposed by the numberdaar Uchbu and Pritam Singh of Sangdah who were captured and sent to Nahan to the king. The settlement of land for the second time was in 1887 AD was under the supervision of Parameshwari Sahay. The king opened an iron factory named Nahan Foundry in Nahan in 1867. The headquarters of the District Board was established at Nahan, which was established in 1884. In 1890 AD English was Made the language of government work in India. In 1893 AD ‘Nahan National Bank’ opened by Shamsher Prakash. In 1944, it was named ‘Bank of Sirmaur’
In the reign of Shamsher Prakash in 1867 AD Ranitaal Bagh, in 1868 AD Nahan Municipal Committee was established. In 1898 AD Lord Rippon came to Nahan. While in 1885 AD Lord Dufferin came to Nahan. In 1880 AD Shamsher Villa was built for his stay by Shamsher Prakash. In1878 AD Lytton Memorial (Delhi Gate) was built by Shamsher Prakash to commemorate Lord Lytton’s visit to Nahan. Shamsher Prakash is the king of Sirmaur who ruled for the longest period (42 years). After Shamsher Prakash, Tikka Surendra Vikram Singh (1898–1911) became king.
Surender Vikram Prakash (1898–1911 AD) –
Surendra Vikram Prakash was made a member of the Imperial Legislative Council for 5 years by Government of India in 1902 AD. He was awarded the title of KCSI by the British Government in 1901. King Surendra Vikram Prakash died on 4 July 1911 in Mussoorie.
Amar Prakash (1911–1933 AD) –
For his contribution to the First World War, he was given the honor of ‘Maharaja’ by the British Government in 1918 and K.C.S.I. (Knight commander of the order of the star of India) in 1915. Amar Prakash established the ‘Mahila Library’ at Nahan in the name of his daughter and it is the oldest library. He made the Nahan-Kala Amb road in 1927 AD. He died in the Austrian capital Viana in 1933 AD.
Rajendra Prakash (1933–1948 AD) –
Rajendra Prakash was the last ruler of the princely state of Sirmaur. During the time of Rajendra Prakash, the establishment of Sirmaur Praja Mandal was done in 1937 AD and the Pazhota Andolan (1942 AD) took place. Kisaan Sabha ‘was formed in Pazhota Andolan, whose chairman Lakshmi Singh and secretary legitimate Surat Singh were elected. In March 13, 1948 AD Maharaja Rajendra Prakash signed the merger letter. On 15 April 1948, Sirmaur became a district of H.P.