Mountain ranges and peaks of Himachal Pradesh
|Mountain ranges and peaks of Himachal Pradesh|
Gauri Devi Ka Tibba
Geographical Regions of Himachal Pradesh-
On the basis of the characteristics of various physical elements related to relief, the entire Himachal Pradesh can be divided into the following geophysical regions
1. The Outer Himalayas or Shivalik regions.
2. The Lesser or Lower Himalayas or The Central Zone.
3. The Higher Himalayas or The Great Himalayan Region.
4. The Inner Himalayas or Trans Himalayan Region
1) Outer Himalayas or Shivalik Region –
Nahan and Paonta regions of Sirmaur district, Nalagarh area of Solan district, Swarghat tehsil area of Bilaspur district, Una, Kangra and Chamba are in this region. Nahan, Nalagarh, Una and Nurpur are the major cities located in the Doon Valley. The total length of this terrain is about 290 km as a short strip, while its width is between 10 and 40 km. Shivalik Literally means the Jataen of Lord Shiva In ancient geography it is also called Manak Parbat.
The average elevation of Shivalik between 350 to 800 meters above mean sea level of this region and the elevation characteristics are simple and the surface gradient is also slow. Shivalik hills, tall valleys and mountain slopes towards the plains are the main terrain of this geophysical region.
(2) Small Himalayas or intermediate regions –
This land is the transition zone between the outer Himalayas and the higher Himalayas. Naturally on the north-east side of this terrain are the Dhauladhar mountain ranges. The width of this area is around 75 to 100 km. The elevation of this land is above 700 meters in the river valley areas ranging from sea level to about 4500 meters on the high Dhauladhar mountain ranges. Most of the districts of Chamba, Kangra, Mandi, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Shimla, Solan, Sirmaur districts are located in this belt. The biggest feature of this Himalayan region is that it gradually increases in elevation as we move towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal mountain ranges. To the south of Shimla lies the high peak of Chud Chandni (3647 m). This geographical area is dominated by granite and other rifted rocks in the geological structure. The rocks of this land area belong to the Purana and Carboniferous era to the Purana Eocene era. The topography of this terrain is divided into unmarked major mountain ranges and valleys. • Major mountain ranges – The Dhauladhar mountain ranges are the main among them. Kangra Valley or Dharamshala is situated at the foothills of the Dhauladhar mountain range. Dhauladhar means white peak. The Dhauladhar mountain range is cut by the Ravi river in the southwestern part of Chamba, the Beas river at Larji and the Sutlej river near Rampur. The mountain ranges further extended towards this mountain range are located north of Nagtibba or Chudhar mountain ranges to the north of Shimla Cuttack. To the east of Chudhar is the Maussorie mountain range. The peak of Chud Chandni is 3647 meters high in the south of Shimla. The average elevation of these mountain ranges is between 3300 to 4500 meters.
(3) High Himalayas or Great Himalayan region –
The transition state of this geophysical region is also between the Small Himalayas and the Trans Himalayan terrain. Geographically, this Himalayan region is bounded on the north and north-east by the Great Himalayan and Pir Panjal ranges. The average width of this terrain is close to 60 kilometers. The elevation of this terrain ranges from 1000 meters in the river valley areas to over 7000 meters above the high Great Himalayan mountain ranges. The geological structure of this land is related to the Purana and the Mesozoic era (6.5-24.5 million years). This land area is spread in Chamba, Kullu, Shimla, Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti districts. The valleys of Chamba, Kullu, Parvati, Rupi and Sutlej are important landmarks in terms of agriculture of this region. The average of these valleys is between 1500 and 2000 meters above sea level. Great Himalayan and Pir Panjal Ranges – These major mountain ranges separate the river basins of Ravi and Beas in the southern part, while the river basins of Chenab and Spiti differ from each other in the northern part. Pir Panjal Range and many snow rivers are found in the south of Lahaul Valley. The Pir Panjal and the Great Himalayan ranges come from the north and east of the Kullu Valley, the Kunjam and Srikhand mountain ranges. The average elevation of all these mountain ranges is between 4000 to 5000 meters but some of these mountain peaks are more than 6500 meters. Parasala (6000 m), Dio Tibba (6000 m) and Dibbi Vokri (6400 m) are the highest mountain peaks here. These high mountain ranges play an important role in determining the climatic conditions of the region.
(4) Inner Himalaya or Trans Himalayan region –
It is located in the northern and northern eastern part of Himachal Pradesh. The Zansker Range and its subdivisions determine the international boundaries of Himachal Pradesh with Tibet. The Jaskar Himalayan range or the Trans Himalayas (5000-6000 m) separates Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet. Geographically, this area is spread in Pangi Tehsil of Chamba, Lahaul-Spiti district and Kinnaur district. The total width of this terrain is close to 80 kilometers. The elevation of this terrain ranges from 2000 m in the lower valley regions to about 7000 m on the higher Himalayan peaks. The composition of this terrain is related to the Paleozoic (24-57 million years ago) and Mesozoic era rocks and there is also presence of fossils in these rocks. Access to this trans-Himalayan region from the higher Himalayan region or the Great Himalayan region is possible only through a few passes. Among these rates, Rohtang Pass is 3978 meters, Parangala 5579 meters, Baralachala 4512 meters, Kunjamala 4520 meters and Pin Parvati 5319 meters. Another important topography of this terrain is the Zanskar Range, which is located on the eastern side of this terrain. This mountain range separates Kinnaur and Spiti from Tibet internationally. There are many high peaks in this range, among them Shilla 026 m, the highest peak in Himachal and Revo Fumul (6791 m), Shipki (6608 m) are the highest peaks