National Parks of Himachal Pradesh || Flora and Fauna, Forests, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks and Biodiversity in Himachal Pradesh.
(1) Biosphere Reserve –
In India National Biosphere Program was started in1986. There is a total of 18 biosphere reserves in India, out of which The Cold Desert of Himachal Pradesh is also one of the 18 biosphere reserves. Pin Valley National Park and the area around it, Chandra Tal, Sarchu and Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary came under this.
(2) Sanctuaries and National Parks –
Himachal Pradesh has 5 national parks, 31 wildlife sanctuaries, 3 natural parks. Under this, 7814 sq km. Area comes, which is 14.03% of the area of the state. The largest wildlife sanctuary is the Kibber of Lahaul-Spiti, covering an area of 1400 sq km. The smallest wildlife sanctuary is Shilli of Solan, whose area is 2 sq km.
(3) National Parks of Himachal Pradesh –
5 out of 103 national parks in the country located in Himachal Pradesh. List of those five national parks of Himachal Pradesh are given below –
List of National Parks of Himachal Pradesh-
|S.No.||Name of National Parks of Himachal Pradesh||Located in|
|1.||Great Himalayan National Park||Kullu|
|2.||Pin Valley National Park||Spiti|
|3.||Simbalbara National Park||Sirmaur|
|4.||Inderkilla National Park||Kullu|
|5.||Kheerganga National Park||Kullu|
The total area of these 5 National Parks of Himachal Pradesh is 2271 sq. km. These 5 National Parks of Himachal Pradesh are the major attraction for tourists. Most of the national parks of Himachal Pradesh is located in Kullu.
(a) Great Himalayan National Park (Kullu) –
This national park is Spread over the area of 754 sq km in Kullu district. It is established in 1984. It was given the status of National Park in 1999. It was included in the World Heritage List at the UNESCO meeting in Doha on 23 June 2014. It is the 32nd World Heritage Site of India. It is the 11th site in India in terms of natural heritage.
(b) Inderkilla National Park (Kullu) –
It was established in 2010 as a national park. Its total area is 104 sq km. It is located in Kullu district.
(c) Kheerganga National Park –
It was established in 2010. Its total area is 710 sq km. It is located in Kullu district.
(d) Simbalbara National Park (Sirmaur) –
It was established in 2010 as a national park. Its total area is 27.88 sq km. This is the smallest national park of Himachal Pradesh and is known as Colonel Sher Jung National Park. It is located in Paonta tehsil of Sirmaur district. It was given the status of a wildlife sanctuary in 1958.
(e) Pin Valley National Park –
The cold desert Pin Valley, located in Spiti in Lahaul-Spiti district, became a national park on 9 January 1987. Its area is 675 sq km. It is one among the 18 Biosphere reserves in India
Himalayan Zoological Park –
Himalayan Zoological Park is located in Kufri, Ghanahatti, Tutikandi near Shimla
There is a zoo and musk deer farm in Tutikandi, Shimla. The Kasturi deer farm is also located in Kufri (Shimla).
Natural Park –
(i) Kufri (Shimla)
(ii) Manali Sharanasthali
(iii) Gopalpur Sanctuary Kangra.
Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh
|S.No.||Wildlife Sanctuary||District||Area (in sq.km)||Establishing Year|
|8||Churdhar||Sirmaur||66||15 November, 1985|
|11||Shimla Water Catchment||Shimla||10||29 July, 1958|
|13||Govind Sagar||Bilaspur||100||5 December, 1962|
|14||Naina Devi||Bilaspur||123||5 December, 1962|
|17||Sech Tuan Nala||Chamba||103||1962|
|19||Kais||Kullu||14||26 February, 1954|
|20||Kalatop-Khajjiar||Chamba||69||1 July, 1949|
|21||Kanawar||Kullu||61||26 February, 1954|
|22||Khokhan||Kullu||14||26 February, 1954|
|23||Manali||Kullu||32||26 February, 1954|
|26||Tirthan||Kullu||61||17 June, 1976|
|27||Pong Dam Lake (Maharana Pratap Lake)||Kangra||307||1 June, 1983|
|28||Rupi Bhaba||Kinnaur||738||28 March, 1982|
(B) Wetland in Himachal Pradesh –
In 1971, International Convention on Conservation of Wetlands in Iran on Ramsar (on the coast of the Caspian Sea) was held. Currently 171 countries are involved in this treaty. The agreement entered into force in 1975. India joined it in 1982. World Wetland Day is observed every year since 1997 on 2 February. The total wetland area in India is 4.63% of the geographical area of India. So far 37 sites in India have been declared wetland areas under the Ramsar Agreement. The Government of India launched the National Wetland Conservation Program in 1985–86 and identified 115 wetlands. 1% of Himachal Pradesh geographical area is wetland.
Land of International Importance –
3 out of 26 wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Agreement are in Himachal Pradesh. Chandra Tal wetland, Pong dam lake and Renuka wetland are wetland of international importance in Himachal Pradesh. The Renuka wetland is the smallest Wetland in India.
There is a total of 92 wetlands in Himachal Pradesh, which is 1% of the geographical area. Out of these 92 grasslands, 85 are natural lakes and 7 are man-made lakes. Renuka has been selected at the national level as a wetland in 2005. The Pong Dam lake was declared a national level wetland in 1994 and the Ramsar site in 2002.
(C) Vegetation type and vegetation-
Types of vegetation in Himachal Pradesh –
Natural vegetation in Himachal Pradesh is also found in altitudinal zones. In Himachal Pradesh, vegetation in the lower part is temperate and vegetation in the upper region is tropical and alpine in nature. Generally, in the lower mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh, this vegetation is of tropical and subtropical type, temperate in intermediate and alpine and tundra type in high Himalayan regions. Generally, the cover of forests is found up to 3500 meters height, this gives the cover of alpine grass lands towards higher altitude. The snow line is found above 4500 meters in the Himalayan terrain of this region.
(D) Cover of Forests in Himachal Pradesh –
66.52% of the total area of Himachal Pradesh i.e. 37033 sq km, is a forest area. Out of this, 14696 sq km. there are forests on the area which is 26.40% of the total area (55,673 sq km). That is, we can say that in Himachal Pradesh 26.40% of the area is actually forested. 14696 sq km of forest area (37033 sq km) there is forest in the area which is 39.68% of the forest area.
1. The maximum forest area is in – Lahaul-Spiti (10,133 sq km)
2. The minimum forest area is in – Hamirpur (219 sq km)
3. The most forested area is in – Chamba (2 436 sq km).
4. The least forested area is in – Lahaul -Spiti
5. The maximum forest is (of total area) – Sirmaur (49.03%) (1385 x 100)/2825= 49.03%
6. The minimum Forest is (of total area) – Lahaul-Spiti (1.41%) (195 x 100)/13835 = 1.41%
The percentage of different types of forests in Himachal Pradesh is:
1. Pine / eagle – 25.36%
2. Fur / Spruce-23.72%
3. Cedar – 16.2%
4. Cal – 14.29%
5. Ban Oak – 9.53%
6. Sal – 3.20%
(1) Himachal Forest Corporation was established on 25 March 1974.
(2) Himachal Pradesh Forest Act, 1982
(3) Himachal Pradesh Forest Conservation Maintenance Act, 1984
(4) Himachal Pradesh Land Conservation Act, 1978
Baroza is obtained from the pine tree which is used to make turpentine oil, plastic items. Baroza Factories in Bilaspur and Nahan
State Trees – Cedar
State Birds – Jujurana
State Animal – snow leopard
*In 1980 ‘Social Forestry Project was introduced in Himachal Pradesh.
** In 1980, with the help of Germany, the Dhauladhar Agricultural Forestry Project, was introduced in H.P. It was completed in 1989.
Number of flora species of Himachal Pradesh –
Out of 47,000 tree species in India, 3256 species are found in Himachal Pradesh. Which constitutes 7% of the biodiversity of tree species of India. 3120 species of angiosperms, 12 species of gymnosperms (conifers) and 124 species of pteridophytes (ferns) present in Himachal Pradesh.
(E) Forest and Environment
(1) Central Himalayan Watershed Development Project –
Central Himalayan Watershed Development Project was started in the state from 01.10.2005. The scheme was for 6 years with a total cost of Rs. 365.00 crore was earmarked. The cost of the project is being borne by the World Bank and the State Government in 80:20 ratio and 10 percent of the cost of the project will be borne by the beneficiaries.
(2) Himachal Pradesh Forest Eco – System Climate Proofing Project –
With the help of KFW Bank of German Government, Himachal Pradesh Forest Eco-System Climate Proofing Project has been approved for a period of seven years in Kangra and Chamba districts of the state at a cost of Rs 310.00 crore. The project has been started from 2015-16. In the financial year 2016-17, there is a provision to spend 40.00 crores, out of which by 31.12.2016 Rs. 1.54 crore has been spent. By Another German government bank G.I.Z., integrated eco system services have also been approved for adoption in the state Under technical cooperation for about three years, At the cost of 25.00 crores. Under this project for the year 2017-18, Rs. 60.00 crore is proposed to be spent.
(3) Swan River Integrated Watershed Management Project –
Swan River Integrated Watershed Management Project is being run in District Una with financial support provided by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Under this, 619 sq km of 96-gram panchayats region 22 sub-watersheds were selected in which various project activities were implemented. The project is based on an 85:15 stake.
(F)Fauna in Himachal Pradesh –
Out of 89,451 animal species across India, 5,721 species are found in Himachal, which is 6.40% of the biodiversity of fauna species of entire India. 4 times more bio-diversity than its area is in Himachal. These species include 77 of mammals, 44 of reptilia, 17 of amphibia, 81 of fish, 4362 species of insects are found in. H.P.
State Bird of Himachal Pradesh – Western Tragopan
State Animal of Himachal Pradesh – The snow leopard
India’s first fossil park in Suketi, District Sirmaur. The musk deer is kept safe in the Gangul Wildlife Sanctuary. It has a breeding center in Kufri.
(G) Endangered and endangered species –
In H.P. the following plants and wildlife species have been notified in the meeting of the State Biodiversity Board on 1 February 2017 (Tolland, Shimla), exercising the powers conferred by Section 38 of the Biodiversity Act-2002 (18 of 2003) is on the verge of extinction.
6. Himalayan Birch
7. Salaam Paw
8. Carrot Mula
9. Kakoli / Jungle Lassan
12. Dwarf Jasmine
13. Ksheer Kakoli
16. Dudhiya Bach
18. Ner Dhoop
19. Nag Dhanu Himalayan Bladdernut
21. Birmi / Rakhal
22. Nagachhatri Himalayan Trillium.
(2) Fauna –
1. Step Eagle
2. Tibetan wolf
3. Himalayan Serow
4. Cheer Peasant
5. Beard Vulture
6. White Rumped Vulture
7. Slander Build Vulture
8. Himalayan Tahr
9. Himalayan Musk Deer
10. Regal Apollo
11. Snow Apollo
12. Himalayan Tree Frog
13. Koklass pheasant
14. Red-headed Vulture 15. Jujurana
16. Snow Leopard
(H) Forest Policies of Himachal Pradesh Government –
The first state forest policy of Himachal Pradesh was adopted on 3 September 1980, which was based on the National Forest Policy Proposal 1952. In India, the Forest Protection Act of 1980 and the National Forest Policy were enacted in 1988, based on which the need for change in the forest policy was also felt in Himachal. Himachal government implemented Joint Forest Management (JFM) in 1993. In 2001, PFM Rule (Participatory Forest Management) was notified, which is called Sanjhi Van Yojna Scheme. In 2005, the State Forest Area Policy and Strategy (HP Forest Sector Policy and Strategy.2005) was given by the Government.
Most Important Question – Answer Related Flora and Fauna, Forests, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Famous National Parks of Himachal Pradesh and Biodiversity in Himachal Pradesh.
Forest, Flora and Wildlife
Q.1 Which is the state bird of Himachal Pradesh?
Answer- Jujurana. (Western Tragopan, formerly was Monal)
Q.2 What is the state flower of Himachal Pradesh?
Answer – Gulabi Burhans (Pink Rhododendron or Rhododendron campanulatum).
Q.3 According to the National Forest Policy, what percentage of the geographical area of a hilly state like Himachal Pradesh should be forested.
Q.4 Where is the kiang animal found in the Himalayas?
Answer -Kinnaur and Lahaul – Spiti.
Q.5 Where is the musk deer breeding center located?
Answer – Kufri.
Q.6 Which was the state bird of Himachal Pradesh in the year 2005?
Answer – Monal.
Q.7 Which was the state animal of Himachal Pradesh (in 2005)?
Answer -Kasturi deer (currently snow leopard).
Q.8 Which district has the lowest percentage of forests?
Answer – Lahaul – Spiti (1.39%)
Q.9 Wildlife hunting was banned in Himachal Pradesh.
Q.10 HP’s state tree?
Q.11 Approximately what percentage of the total geographical area of Himachal Pradesh falls under forests?
Answer -66.5% (37033 sq km)
Wildlife sanctuary and National Parks of Himachal Pradesh-
Q.1 Where is a ‘Himalayan Botanical Garden’ located?
Answer – Kufri (Shimla)
Q.2 Which is the smallest wildlife sanctuary?
Q.3 Where is the ‘Kalatop Khajjiar’ wildlife sanctuary located?
Answer -In Chamba district.
Q.4 ‘Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary’ is Located in which district?
Q.5 ‘Daranghati’ Wildlife Sanctuary is located?
Answer -Shimla District.
Q.6 Shilli Jev-Jantu Sharansthal is situated in which of the following cities of Himachal Pradesh?
Answer – Solan (in 1963)
Q.7 Simbalbara National Park is close to which city of Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh?
Answer -Paonta Sahib.
Q.8 Who controls Govind Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary in Mandi and Bilaspur districts?
Answer – Bhakra Management Board.
Q.9 Dhauladhar Farm Forestry Project is being run in association with which country?
Q.10 In which valley of the Alpine type trees are found?
Answer – in the Spiti Valley.
Q.11 Inderkilla National Park is located in which district?
Q.12 Colonel Sher Jung National Park is located in.
Answer -Simbalbara (Sirmaur)
Q.14 Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is located at which district.
Answer – In Solan and Shimla districts.
Q.15 What is the total area of these 5 National Parks of Himachal Pradesh?
Answer – 2271 sq. km.
Q.16 Total number of National Parks of Himachal Pradesh is .
Answer – 5.
Note – If you Know more about these 5 National Parks of Himachal Pradesh Then you can Comment in comment box . from there we will pick important points and publish in our article (National Parks of Himachal Pradesh) .