Languages of Himachal Pradesh | Famous Dialects or sub- Dialects of Himachal Pradesh|(local )regional languages of Himachal Pradesh|
(A) Origin of Pahari Language –
The language of Himachal Pradesh, which is spoken by 90% of the people here is known as Western Pahari language. The Western Pahari language is spoken from Jaunsar Bawar in Uttarakhand to Bhaderwah in Jammu and Kashmir. About 30 clear dialects have been discovered in this area. Classification of dialects is given by George Abraham Grierson in his book “The Linguistic Survey of India”.
He associated Bilaspuri and Kangri with Punjabi language which was later considered as Pahari language. George Abraham Grierson has attributed the birth of Pahari language to Dardi and Paishachi, while According to Dr. Hardev Outer, Dr. Bholanath Tiwari, Dr. Udayanarayan Tiwari and Dr. Dhirendra Varma, the Pahari language has developed from Shauraseni Nagar Apabhramsa. There are also some tribal languages of Himachal Pradesh. We have discussed below.
(B) Main Pahari dialects –
About 88.77% of people speak Pahari (Hindi) and 6.83% of people speak Punjabi language in Himachal Pradesh. The rest of the people speak Tibetan Himalayan language.
Dharti – Dharti dialect is spoken in the (Giri aar) Dharoti area of Sirmour.
Viswai – In the Giripar area of Sirmaur which is connected with Shimla, the Viswai dialect is prevalent.
The Mahasuvi dialect is spoken in Solan and Shimla districts.
Baghati – The Baghati dialect prevails in the Solan region, which was famous in the state of Baghat.
Baghlani – The Baghlani dialect prevails in the Baghal state, namely Kunihar and Arki region.
Hinduri – The Hinduri dialect prevails in the Nalagarh region.
Kahloori dialect is spoken in Bilaspur district. “T. Graham Bailey “divided the dialects of Bilaspur into six sections.
Keonathali – The name Keonthal dialect prevails around the town of Shimla.
Kochi – The Kochi dialect prevails in the Sutlej Valley, Rampur Bushahr, Kumarsain and Kotgarh region.
Barari – Barari dialect is prevalent in Jubbal’s Barar and Rohru tehsils.
Kiran – Kiran dialect is prevalent in Kiran region of Throch state.
The major dialect of Kullu district is Kulluvi. It has three sub-dialects- Seraji, Sainji and Kulluvi. Malani is the dialect of the village Malana which is part of the Kinnaur class.
This language is one of the most famous Languages of Himachal Pradesh. The dialect of Mandi district is Mandyali. Suketi dialect is prevalent in Sundernagar and Suket. Apart from this, Sarghati in Sarkaghat, Baldi sub dialect is prevalent in Balh valley.
Chambyali dialect is spoken in Chamba district. Local dialects include Bhatiyati in Bhatiyat, Churahi in Churah, Pangwali in Pangi and Bharmouri dialect in Bharmour. Chambyali is one of the most famous Languages of Himachal Pradesh
Kangra, Una and Hamirpur – Kangri dialect is prevalent in these three districts.
The Kinnauri dialect called Homskad is spoken by 75% of the people of Kinnaur is one of the most famous Languages of Himachal Pradesh. Some of the sub-dialects here are
Sanganur – the dialect of Sanganur of Pooh Tehsil.
Jangiyam – dialect of Jangi, Lippa and Asrang of Morang.
Shumko – Pooh’s Kanam, Labrang, Shaiso’s dialect.
Lahaul – Spiti
Bhoti – It is spoken in Spiti and Chandra and Bhaga Valley.
Gehri – It is spoken in the Keylong region.
Manchat and Chagasa – Both these dialects are spoken in the Chenab Valley of Lahaul. Of these four dialects, Bhoti dialect has its own script and grammar.
(C) Script –
The script of Pahari language is Tankari which was used by the Banias in the book of accounts. Records and decrees of the hill states were written in this script. The kings of Kangra and Chamba used the Tankari script in their royal works. Huller considers the Tankari script to be an improved form of the Sharda script. Presently the Pahari Languages of Himachal Pradesh is written in Devanagari script.
Frequently asked Questions related to Languages of Himachal Pradesh with their solution –
Q.1 Which dialect is spoken in Mandi district?
Answer – Mandyali.
Q.2 In which district Mahasuvi dialect is spoken? –
Answer – Shimla and Solan
Q.3 How many sub-dialects are spoken in Himachal Pradesh?
Answer – 36
Q.4 While surveying Indian languages, Grierson has divided the Pahari language into three parts? In which part has he put the Himachali hill?
(A) Eastern Hill
(B) Middle Hill
(C) Western Hill
(D) North Hill North
Answer – (C) Western Hill
Q.5 Baghlani dialect is spoken in which region of Himachal Pradesh?
(A) Solan – Nalagarh
(B) Arki – Kunihar
(C) Dharampur – Kamarhati
(D) Baddi – Barotiwala
Answer – (B) Arki – Kunihar
Q.6 Barari dialect is related to which region of Himachal Pradesh?
(A) Chamba – Nurpur
(B) Una – Hindur
(C) Jubbal – Rohru
(D) Kumarsen – Kotgarh North
Answer – (C) Jubbal – Rohru
Q.7 Himachal Pradesh Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages When was the establishment?
Answer – (B) 1968
Q.8 According to whom ‘Pahari language’ is born from Dardi and Pishachi?
(A) Bholanath Tiwari
(B) Hardev Outer
(C) G.A. Grierson
(D) Govind Chatack
Answer- (C) G.A. Grierson
Q.9 Which dialect has its own grammar?
Answer – (D) Bhoti
Q.10 Which language is considered a sub dialect of ‘Gehri’?
Answer – (A) Lahauli
Q.11 ‘Kahloori’ is the dialect of which district?
Answer- (D) Bilaspur
Q.12 What is ‘Tankari’?
(A) Method of weaving
(B) Marriage method
(C) A coin
(D) A type scripts
Answer- (D) A type script
Q.13 Official language of Himachal Pradesh is-
Answer- (A) Hindi
Q.14 In which script was the Pahari language written?
Answer – (D) Tankari
Q.15 With whom is the ‘Baghati’ dialect associated?
Answer- (C) Solan
Q.16 Who divided the dialects spoken in Bilaspur into six sections?
(A) G. A. Grierson
(B) T. Graham Bailey
(C) Govind Chattack
(D) Hardev Outer
Answer – (B) T. Graham Bailey
Q.17 32 different dialects are spoken in Himachal Pradesh? How many of them belong to the Indian Aryan family?
Answer- (B) 21
Q.18 Which is the dialect of Bilaspur district?
Answer- (D) Kahloori
Q.19 Literature related to Kamyur and Tangyur Buddhism is preserved in the Kardang Buddhist monastery. In which local dialect is it written?
Answer- (B) Bhoti
Q.20 Which language of Himachal Pradesh in ancient times written in ‘Tankari’?
Answer- (A) Chambyali
Q.21 The spoken language of which district of Himachal is described as Rahul Sankrityayan as ‘Hamskada’ or ‘Hamskada’?
Answer – (B) Kinnaur
Q.22 By which tribe of Himachal Pradesh ‘Manchad’ and ‘Chinali’ are these two languages spoken?
Answer – (C) Swangala