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Himachal Pradesh: –
Himachal Pradesh is a small state in northside of our lovely India. It come in western part of Great Himalayas. It is a mountain state and counted as one of the eleven mountain states. It is portrayed by an outrageous scene featuring several peaks and extensive river frameworks Himachal Pradesh shares outskirts with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the north and the states of Punjab to the west, Haryana to the southwest, and Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh to the south. the state likewise has a boundary with the autonomous area of Tibet to the east.
The overwhelmingly sloping district containing the present-day Himachal Pradesh has been possessed since pre -memorable occasions having seen various influxes of human relocation from other areas through its history, local kingdoms ruled most of its region, few of them suzerainty of larger empires. Before independence of India from British, Himachal Pradesh was the hilly region of Punjab (Punjab province of British India). After independence, as per Chief Commissioner’s province of H.P. many of hilly territories were well organized, then later it became union territory. In 1966 the hilly region of Punjab was included in Himachal Pradesh. In 1971 Himachal Pradesh was granted for full statehood.
H.P. is spread across many valleys with a lot of evergreen rivers flowing through them. Most of the population lives in rural areas (approx. 90%). States economy depend upon various factors such as Agriculture, Horticulture, hydropower plants and tourism industry. As per 2016 data this state if universally electrified with about 99.5% of the household having electricity. In 2016 it was declared as second open-expurgation (excretion) free state in India. In 2017 Himachal was declared as least corrupt state in India in accordance with CMS survey.
Basic information: –
ØUnion territory was declared in 1 November 1956.
ØStatehood – 25 January 1971.
ØCapital – Shimla (Summer capital – Shimla, Winter capital – Dharamshala).
Native – Mahasu Pahari, Mandyali, Kangri, Kullu, Bilaspuri, Kinnauri, Lahauli, Pattani, there are many other languages but they are not regitered officially one of which is Malana valley languages Kanashi /Raksh and many more.
ØTime zone: – UTC +05:30 (IST).
ØISO 3166 code: – IN-HP.
ØHuman Development Index (HDI): – ^0.725 (High) 8th rank in India.
ØLiteracy rate: – 83.78 %.
Government details: – (current list 2020)
ØCurrent government in Himachal is BJP (Bhartiya Janata party) 2017.
ØParliamentary constituency: – Rajya Sabha 3, Lok Sabha 4.
The legislature of Himachal Pradesh has no pre-constitution history. The State itself may be a post-independence creation. It became centrally administered territory on 15 April 1948 from the mixing of thirty princely states.
Himachal Pradesh is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature shared by this state with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. The legislature consists of elected members and special office bearers like the Speaker and therefore the Deputy Speaker who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker within the Speaker’s absence. The judiciary consists of the Himachal Pradesh supreme court and a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested within the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of state is that the Governor. The governor is that the head of state and is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority within the legislature is appointed because the Chief Minister by the governor, and therefore the Council of Ministers are selected by the governor on the recommendation of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the legislature. The Assembly is unicameral with 68 Members of the legislature (MLA). Terms of office run five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved before the completion of the term. Supplementary command is referred to as panchayats, that local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.
In the assembly elections held in November 2017, the BJP secured a majority, winning 44 of the 68 seats while the Congress won only 21 of the 68 seats. Jai Ram Thakur was sworn in as Himachal Pradesh’s Chief Minister for the primary time in Shimla on 27 December 2017.
History of Himachal Pradesh: –
History of Himachal Pradesh
In prehistoric era the region is inhabited by the tribes such as Hali, Kola, Dhaugri, Dagi, Dasa, Khasa, Kanaura and Kirat. In between 2250 and 1750 B.C. the foothill region of modern state was inhabited by the people of Indus valley civilization. It is believed that the original migrants to the hills of present-day Himachal are the Kols and the Mundas later on it was followed by Bhotas and kiratas. In Vedic period many small Janapada existed which were later conquered by the Gupta Empire. After a long period of time of leadership of King Harshvardhana, the area was divided into many local powers which was headed by cheiftians, including some Rajputs emirate. large degree of independence was enjoyed by these kingdoms and number of times it was invaded by Delhi sultanate (emirate). At the beginning of 11th century Kangra was captured by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Lower hills of the state were marched by Timur and Sikander Lodi and they fought many battles and take over many forts. Many hill states admitted the leadership (suzerainty) of Mughals and these hilly states tribute to Mughals.
The Gorkha empire take over many kingdoms and in 1768 they came into power in Nepal. They strengthen their army power and started to expand their empire and gradually, they take over Sirmaur and Shimla. kangra was sieged by Nepali army under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa.
They defeated the king of kangra Sansar Chand Katoch in 1806 with the help of local chiefs. But the kangra fort was not captured by Nepali army, because on that time the fort was under the rule of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh (1809). After defeat they expanded their empire towards south of state. They came into dispute directly with Britishers along with Tara belt. After this incident British deported them from the provinces of Satluj. Slowly British came out as the paramount power in the region on that time. In 1857 insurgency (or First Indian war of independence, arises due to large number of complaints against British. But the peoples of hilly regions were not so politically active as in the other states of our country. Except Bushahr other rulers remained more or less inactive. And some of the rulers including Chamba, Bilaspur, Bhangal and Dhami refused the help of the British government during that time period of revolt. In 1858 the British territories came under the British Crown Queen Victoria. During the British rule there were development in many fields, in Chamba, Mandi and Bilaspur. The hill stations remained always loyal towards the British government. During world war 1 they helped British government in many more ways they remained loyal and contributed to British war efforts in both the two ways one is in the form of men and other in the form of materials. Kangra, Jaswan, Dattarpur, Guler, Ramgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi and Bilaspur these were the states which helped them and remain loyal with British government during World war 1.
Himachal Pradesh was organized as a result of 28 petty princely states integration under the Province of the chief commissioner, after independence on 15 April 1948 (including feudal princes and zaildars) in the western region of Himalayas. The Shimla states and 4 other Punjab hilly states were combined with Himachal Pradesh under section 3 and 4 of extra-provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947. On 1 July 1954 Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh. With the implementation of the constitution of India Himachal Pradesh become a Part ‘C’ state on 26 January 1950. And in Himachal Pradesh the lieutenant Governor was appointed for the first time. The legislative assembly was first time elected in 1952. On 1 November 1956 Himachal Pradesh become the union territory. Many areas of Punjab were merged with Himachal which are named as Shimla , kangra , Kullu , and Lahaul and Spiti districts , Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala district, Lohara , Amb , and Una Kanungo circles , some area of Santokhgarh Kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District , besidessome parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District – were combined with Himachal Pradeshon 1 November 1966 on enactment by parliamentof Punjab reorganization Act 1966 . The state of Himachal Pradesh act was passed by parliament on 18 December 1970. And a new state was formed on 25 January 1971 named Himachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh became the 18th state in Indian union of states And Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar was its first chief minister. Himachal Pradesh got its statehood on 14 April 1971 and hence this day is celebrated as himachal statehood day every year …….
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