Discover the history of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh, once part of the Shimla princely states including 7 hill states, and now home to the merged Hundur princely state.
Solan district is a part of the princely states of Shimla hill including Baghal-120 sq mi, Mahalog 49 sq mi, Baghat-33 sq mi, Kuthad-21 sq mi, Mangal-14 sq mi, Kunihar-7 sq mi and Includes Baija-5 square miles. On April 15, 1948, including these 7 hill states Solan and Arki tehsils were formed in the Tehsils of Mahasu district. Apart from these 7 hill states, Hundur (Nalagarh) -276 square mile principality was established in 1966 AD In H.P (as a Tehsil of Shimla) and merged in the Solan district in 1972 AD. All 7 princely states except Hundur princely state used to pay annual rent to Bilaspur princely state till 1790 AD. Mangal princely state even after 1790 AD, the annual rent to Bilaspur state.
(1) Baghat State –
Solan city and Kasauli were part of the Baghat principality. Baghat means ‘Bahu Ghat’ meaning ‘many dares / Ghats.
The establishment of the princely state of Baghat was done by Pawar Rajput ‘Bashant Pal’ (Harichand Pal) from Dharna Geri (South India). Rana Inderpal named the princely state Baghat. In 1790 AD princely state Baghat became independent from Bilaspur. Rana Mahendra Singh became the first independent ruler of the princely state of Baghat.
In 1839 AD Mana Mahendra Singh’s died without any child, and the princely state of Baghat came under the control of the British Government.
Rana Vijay Singh became the ruler of Baghat after Rana Mahendra Singh in 1849 AD. After the death of Vijay Singh (without any son), the Baghat princely state came under the policy of Lord Dalhousie under the Laps policy. In 1862 AD Rana Ummed Singh (13 years later) received the throne when he was on death bed, after Umaid Singh, Rana Dalip Singh (1862–1911 AD) ascended the throne. He shifted Solan from Bauch, the capital of the princely state of Baghat.
(2) Baghal princely state (Arki) –
Mangal was situated in the north of the Baghal state, Dhami and Kunihar in the east, Hundur (Nalagarh) in the west, and Ambala in the south.
The princely state of Baghal was established by Pawar Rajput Ajaydev of Ujjain. The state of Baghal, located around the river Gambhar, the capital of the Baghal principality was Sari, Dandan, Dugali, and Darla.
Rana Sabha Chand –
Rana Sabha Chand in 1643 AD Made Arki the capital of the princely state of Baghal. He is considered the first ruler of the princely state of Baghal. The city of Arki was founded by Rana Sabha Chand.
Gorkha invasion –
Gurkha attack took place during the kingdom of Rana Jagat Singh (1778 AD – 1828 AD). Baghal Principality from 1803 AD to 1815 AD was under the control of the Gorkhas. Arki was the headquarters of the Gorkhas. Rana Jagat Singh took refuge in the princely state of Nalagarh for 7 years. In 1815 AD the British Government Removed the control of Gorkha from the princely state of Baghal. Anirudh Chand, son of Sansar Chand, took refuge with the son of Rana Jagat Singh in fear of Sikh war.
British Government –
In 1857 AD Rana Kishan Singh (1840–1876 AD) assisted the British in the revolt of 1857. By the British Kishan Singh was given the title of ‘Raja’ in 1860 AD. The extreme ruler of the princely state of Baghal was Rajendra Singh. The modern name of the Jagatgarh fort of Baghal state is ‘Jatog’ (Shimla).
(3) Kunihar princely state –
Abhoj Dev, who came from Jammu (Akhnoor) founded Kunihar princely state in 1154 AD. The capital of the princely state of Kunihar was Haatkoti. Magan Dev was the ruler of the princely state at the time of the war. After the Gorkhas left Thakur Mungri Das became the ruler of the princely state. Rao Hardev Singh was the last ruler of Kunihar.
(4) Kuthad Princely State –
Kuthad principality was founded by Surat Chand from Kishtwar (Kashmir). 1815 AD Prior to this, Kuthad was the fief of Hundur and Bilaspur. At the time of the Gorkha invasion, the princely state of Kuthad was the property of Keonthal. At that time the ruler of Kuthad was Gopal Chand who took refuge in Manimajra at the time of the Gorkha invasion. 1815 AD by the British Government got Rana Bhup Singh to Sanad (in 1815 AD) by freeing Kuthad from Gorkha control. Sabathu, who was a part of Keonthal, was later merged with the Kuthad principality. The Sabathu Fort was built by the Gorkhas in 1816 AD In which the British Government established the first military outpost.
(5) Mahalog Princely State –
The Mahalog principality was founded by Veer Chand, who came from Ayodhya. Veer Chand initially resided in Patta village and made it his capital. Uttam Chand lost the capital of the princely state of Mahalog after the defeat of the king of Sirmaur in 1612 AD. Transferred to ‘Kot Dharsi’. Mahalog was the estate of the princely state of Keonthal.
Gorkha invasion –
The state of Mahalog was under the control of the Gorkhas from 1803 AD to1815 AD. During this period, Thakur Sansar Chand, the ruler of Mahalog, took refuge with King Ramsharan of Hundur. In 1815 AD by the British Government the Mahalog was given freedom from the Gorkha invaders and granted independent sanad (4 c. 1815 AD).
British control – After Thakur Sansar Chand’s death Dalip Chand (1849–1880) ascended the throne in 1849 AD. Raghunath Chand was conferred the title of ‘Rana’ by the British government. Durga Singh, son of Raghunath Chand (in 1902 AD) was given the title of ‘Thakur’ by the British Government. The last ruler of the princely state was ‘Thakur Narendra Chand’.
(6) Baija Riyasat –
The princely state of Baija was founded by Tanwar Raja Dholchand of Delhi, while according to the second Jansruti, the princely state of Baija was founded by Garv Chand, the 43rd descendant of Dholchand. The princely state of Baija was under Bilaspur (Kahlur) in 1790 AD. After the defeat of Kahlur by Hundur, the princely state became independent.
Gorkha Invasion –
Maan Chand was the head of the princely state Baija at the time of the Gorkha invasion. 1815 AD After the removal of Gorkha control from Baija, Thakur Maan Chand was given the rule. The title of “Thakur” was given to him by the British. Lakshmi Chand was the extreme ruler of the princely state. Baija was annexed into Solan Tehsil on 15 April 1948.
(7) Maangal State –
Maangal State was founded by Atri Rajput from Marwar (Rajasthan). Mangal was the estate of the princely state of Bilaspur. Maangal princely state was named after Mangal Singh (1240 AD).
British control –
In 1815 AD After the liberation from Gorkha control, the British government granted ‘Rana Bahadur Singh’ an independent treaty. Rana Shiv Singh was the last ruler of Mangal. The princely state of Maangal was established on 15 April 1948 and Was merged with the Arki Tehsil.
(8) Hundur State (Nalagarh) –
Establishment of Hundur State (Nalagarh) –
Establishment of Hundur State Around 1100 AD by Ajay Chand, who was the elder son of King Kahal Chand of Kahlur. Hundur’s princely state was the branch of the Kahlur princely state.
Timur invasion –
In 1398 AD Taimur Lang invaded India. At that time the king of the princely state of Hundur was Alamchand (1356–1406). Alamchand had helped Timur Lag, instead of which Timur Lang did not harm his kingdom.
Vikram Chand (1421-1435 AD) –
founded the city of Nalagarh. Vikram Chand made Nalagarh the capital of the princely state of Hundur.
Ramchand (1522-68 AD) –
Ramchand built the fort of ‘Ramgarh’. Ramchand made Ramshaher his summer capital.
King Ajmer Chand (1712-41 AD) –
Built the fort of Ajmer.
King Ramsharan (1788-1848 AD) –
King Ramsharan supported Sansar Chand. In 1790 AD After defeating the princely state of Kahlur, Fatehpur. Ratanpur and Bahadurpur fort were taken away. At the time of the Gorkha invasion, King Ramsharan had to hide in the Ram city fort for 3 years. 1804 AD The Gorkhas captured Ramshaher. King Ramsharan was a close friend of Sansar Chand. King Ramsharan took refuge in the Fort of Plassey (Hoshiarpur) for 10 years. Pahari (Kangra) painting developed at Hundur during the time of King Ramsharan. Raja Ramsharan along with David Ochterlony in 1814 AD from Hundur pulled out the Gurkha invaders. Gorkha general Amar Singh Thapa May 15, 1815 AD at Malloun Fort in Hundur princely state Surrendered to King Ramsharan and Died in 1848 AD. Raja Vijay Singh (1848–1857) became king after Raja Ramsharan.
From 1857 AD to 1860 AD British Took Nalagarh under his control. In 1860 AD Agar Singh, and in 1878 AD Ishwari Singh became king. Nalagarh was merged with Pepsu (Punjab) during the reign of King Surendra Singh. In 1966 AD Nalagarh was merged with H.P., Which was added to solan in 1972 AD. Became part of Solan district.
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